Sun Dial Pocket Watch Antique Old Gold Lustre Box Vintage Unusual Compass Navy • EUR 115,52 (2024)

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Venditore: anddownthewaterfall ✉️ (34.039) 99.8%, Luogo in cui si trova l'oggetto: Manchester, Take a Look at My Other Items, GB, Spedizione verso: WORLDWIDE, Numero oggetto: 315432033520 Sun Dial Pocket Watch Antique Old Gold Lustre Box Vintage Unusual Compass Navy. Sundial Pocket Watch With Wooden Gift Box This is a Brass with Golden Lustre Sun Dial Pocket Watch with Chain it come with wooden box The Sun Dial lifts up and so does an angle measure The front lifts up to show the compass below The Dimensions of Sundial are 8cm (diameter) x 6cm high with sun dial it weighs just over 1760 grams The Box dimensions are 10cm x 10 cm x 5cm and it weighs 1718 grams Sorry about the poor quality photos. They dont do the watch justice which looks a lot better in real life Would make an Excellent Present or Collectable Keepsake souvenir A wonderful item for anyone who loves antiques It would be a super addition to any collection, excellent display, practical piece or authentic period prop. In Very good condition for its age Comes from a pet and smoke free home Sorry about the poor quality photos. They don't do the pocket watch justice which looks a lot better in real life Like all my Auctions Bidding starts a a penny with no reserve... if your the only bidder you win it for 1p...Grab a Bargain! I have a lot of Unique items on Ebay so Please Check out my other items ! Bid with Confidence - Check My almost 100% Positive Feedback from over 30,000 Satisfied Customers Most of My Auctions Start at a Penny and I always combine postage so please my visit my shop ! I Specialise in Unique Fun Items So For that Interesting Conversational Piece, A Birthday Present, Christmas Gift, A Comical Item to Cheer Someone Up or That Unique Perfect Gift for the Person Who has Everything....You Know Where to Look for a Bargain! ### PLEASE DO NOT CLICK HERE ### Be sure to add me to your favourites list ! 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I have sold items to coutries such as Afghanistan * Albania * Algeria * American Samoa (US) * Andorra * Angola * Anguilla (GB) * Antigua and Barbuda * Argentina * Armenia * Aruba (NL) * Australia * Austria * Azerbaijan * Bahamas * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Barbados * Belarus * Belgium * Belize * Benin * Bermuda (GB) * Bhutan * Bolivia * Bonaire (NL) * Bosnia and Herzegovina * Botswana * Bouvet Island (NO) * Brazil * British Indian Ocean Territory (GB) * British Virgin Islands (GB) * Brunei * Bulgaria * Burkina Faso * Burundi * Cambodia * Cameroon * Canada * Cape Verde * Cayman Islands (GB) * Central African Republic * Chad * Chile * China * Christmas Island (AU) * Cocos Islands (AU) * Colombia * Comoros * Congo * Democratic Republic of the Congo * Cook Islands (NZ) * Coral Sea Islands Territory (AU) * Costa Rica * Croatia * Cuba * Curaçao (NL) * Cyprus * Czech Republic * Denmark * Djibouti * Dominica * Dominican Republic * East Timor * Ecuador * Egypt * El Salvador * Equatorial Guinea * Eritrea * Estonia * Ethiopia * Falkland Islands (GB) * Faroe Islands (DK) * Fiji Islands * Finland * France * French Guiana (FR) * French Polynesia (FR) * French Southern Lands (FR) * Gabon * Gambia * Georgia * Germany * Ghana * Gibraltar (GB) * Greece * Greenland (DK) * Grenada * Guadeloupe (FR) * Guam (US) * Guatemala * Guernsey (GB) * Guinea * Guinea-Bissau * Guyana * Haiti * Heard and McDonald Islands (AU) * Honduras * Hong Kong (CN) * Hungary * Iceland * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Ireland * Isle of Man (GB) * Israel * Italy * Ivory Coast * Jamaica * Jan Mayen (NO) * Japan * Jersey (GB) * Jordan * Kazakhstan * Kenya * Kiribati * Kosovo * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Latvia * Lebanon * Lesotho * Liberia * Libya * Liechtenstein * Lithuania * Luxembourg * Macau (CN) * Macedonia * Madagascar * Malawi * Malaysia * Maldives * Mali * Malta * Marshall Islands * Martinique (FR) * Mauritania * Mauritius * Mayotte (FR) * Mexico * Micronesia * Moldova * Monaco * Mongolia * Montenegro * Montserrat (GB) * Morocco * Mozambique * Myanmar * Namibia * Nauru * Navassa (US) * Nepal * Netherlands * New Caledonia (FR) * New Zealand * Nicaragua * Niger * Nigeria * Niue (NZ) * Norfolk Island (AU) * North Korea * Northern Cyprus * Northern Mariana Islands (US) * Norway * Oman * Pakistan * Palau * Palestinian Authority * Panama * Papua New Guinea * Paraguay * Peru * Philippines * Pitcairn Island (GB) * Poland * Portugal * Puerto Rico (US) * Qatar * Reunion (FR) * Romania * Russia * Rwanda * Saba (NL) * Saint Barthelemy (FR) * Saint Helena (GB) * Saint Kitts and Nevis * Saint Lucia * Saint Martin (FR) * Saint Pierre and Miquelon (FR) * Saint Vincent and the Grenadines * Samoa * San Marino * Sao Tome and Principe * Saudi Arabia * Senegal * Serbia * Seychelles * Sierra Leone * Singapore * Sint Eustatius (NL) * Sint Maarten (NL) * Slovakia * Slovenia * Solomon Islands * Somalia * South Africa * South Georgia (GB) * South Korea * South Sudan * Spain * Sri Lanka * Sudan * Suriname * Svalbard (NO) * Swaziland * Sweden * Switzerland * Syria * Taiwan * Tajikistan * Tanzania * Thailand * Togo * Tokelau (NZ) * Tonga * Trinidad and Tobago * Tunisia * Turkey * Turkmenistan * Turks and Caicos Islands (GB) * Tuvalu * U.S. Minor Pacific Islands (US) * U.S. Virgin Islands (US) * Uganda * Ukraine * United Arab Emirates * United Kingdom * United States * Uruguay * Uzbekistan * Vanuatu * Vatican City * Venezuela * Vietnam * Wallis and Futuna (FR) * Yemen * Zambia * Zimbabwe and major cities such as Tokyo, Yokohama, New York City, Sao Paulo, Seoul, Mexico City, Osaka, Kobe, Kyoto, Manila, Mumbai, Delhi, Jakarta, Lagos, Kolkata, Cairo, Los Angeles, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro, Moscow, Shanghai, Karachi, Paris, Istanbul, Nagoya, Beijing, Chicago, London, Shenzhen, Essen, Düsseldorf, Tehran, Bogota, Lima, Bangkok, Johannesburg, East Rand, Chennai, Taipei, Baghdad, Santiago, Bangalore, Hyderabad, St Petersburg, Philadelphia, Lahore, Kinshasa, Miami, Ho Chi Minh City, Madrid, Tianjin, Kuala Lumpur, Toronto, Milan, Shenyang, Dallas, Fort Worth, Boston, Belo Horizonte, Khartoum, Riyadh, Singapore, Washington, Detroit, Barcelona,, Houston, Athens, Berlin, Sydney, Atlanta, Guadalajara, San Francisco, Oakland, Montreal, Monterey, Melbourne, Ankara, Recife, Phoenix/Mesa, Durban, Porto Alegre, Dalian, Jeddah, Seattle, Cape Town, San Diego, Fortaleza, Curitiba, Rome, Naples, Minneapolis, St. Paul, Tel Aviv, Birmingham, Frankfurt, Lisbon, Manchester, San Juan, Katowice, Tashkent, f*ckuoka, Baku, Sumqayit, St. Louis, Baltimore, Sapporo, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Taichung, Warsaw, Denver, Cologne, Bonn, Hamburg, Dubai, Pretoria, Vancouver, Beirut, Budapest, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Campinas, Harare, Brasilia, Kuwait, Munich, Portland, Brussels, Vienna, San Jose, Damman , Copenhagen, Brisbane, Riverside, San Bernardino, Cincinnati and Accra Sundial Find out what a sundial is with our informative Teaching Wiki. How does a sundial work? What is a roman sundial? Read to discover all about sundials! What is a sundial? A sundial is a device that can tell you what time it is depending on where the Sun casts its shadow on the sundial. A sundial is made up of two parts: a flat circular plate and a stick called a gnomon. The gnomon casts a shadow on the plate and this shadow shows the time. Before clocks were invented, sundials were the only way to tell the time! When the first clocks were created, sundials were still important because early clocks were not accurate, so they had to be reset regularly using sundials as a reference. How does a sundial work? To understand how a sundial works, we have to understand how the Sun casts shadows. When the Earth rotates on its axis, the Sun moves across the sky, causing objects to cast shadows. So, how does a sundial work? As the Sun changes relative positions in the sky over the day, the position of the shadow cast by the gnomon changes to align with the different times around the outside of the circular plate. This way you can tell the time by looking at where the shadow is cast, using the markings around the edge of the sundial base. Remember: A sundial shows the local solar time, which may have to be adjusted to account for national time in your country due to seasons and Daylight Saving Time (DST) or British Summer Time (BST). This is when clocks go backwards and forwards an hour as the seasons change. History of sundials The first recorded sundial was made in Ancient Egypt in 1500 BC. Some of these sundials were small enough to fit in your pocket. Sundials became studied properly in Ancient Greece, with the gnomon being set up parallel to the Earth’s axis. Because the Greeks had a thorough understanding of geometry, they could develop more complex sundials. Roman sundials The Romans adopted the Greek sundials, with the first record of a sundial in Rome being in 293 BC. Plautus, who wrote plays, complained in one of his plays about the day being ‘chopped into pieces’ by these sundials! In 10 BC, the Ancient Romans built a very large sundial called the Solarium Augusti. It is an obelisk, which is a very tall stone pillar that has a big base and gets thinner towards the top. Roman sundials were not completely accurate because they were designed for a lower latitude than Rome, but the inaccuracy was very small so it was not noticed for many years! Medieval sundials During medieval times, sundials were important in the Islamic world for time-keeping for prayers. Algebra and trigonometry helped people to improve the accuracy of the sundials. At the same time, in Europe, timekeeping fell by the wayside. Sundial Teaching Resources Teach kids all about how sundials work with our brilliant range of teaching resources about sundials. All our resources are easily printable and downloadable, perfect to save time lesson planning. Check out our Make a Sundial Activity for a fun, hands-on way to get kids engaged in learning about how sundials work and making their own sundial. What better way to learn than by experimenting themselves? For another interesting interactive activity, have a look at our Sundial Science Experiment, which gets kids experimenting with sundials using everyday items around the house or classroom. For another sundial activity where children use themselves to create shadows, try this Sundial Shadows Experiment, complete with a beautifully illustrated list of instructions. KS2 children can learn more about sundials, using this KS2 Sundial Worksheet, with a fill in the gaps exercise. For a worksheet covering the Science National Curriculum objective Year 5 Earth and Space, check out our Upper Primary Sundial Worksheet. To teach kids more about the movements of the Sun, have a look at our colourful KS2 Day and Night PowerPoint. For a deeper understanding of how shadows work, you can enjoy our fantastic How Do Shadows Change? PowerPoint with real life examples. As sundials are related to the Earth’s rotation, it can be helpful to give more context to how the Earth moves in space to help children understand more about the Earth, Sun and how sundials work. Our Earth’s Movement: Rotation vs Revolution PowerPoint is the perfect resource to teach kids all about how the Earth moves, complete with interesting facts and activities to get involved in. Clock "Timepiece" redirects here. For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation) and Timepiece (disambiguation). The Shepherd Gate Clock at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich Clock face of the Elizabeth Tower in London Digital clock radio Clock on the Beaux Arts façade of the Gare d'Orsay from Paris 24-hour clock face in Florence A clock or a timepiece[1] is a device used to measure and indicate time. The clock is one of the oldest human inventions, meeting the need to measure intervals of time shorter than the natural units: the day, the lunar month, year and galactic year. Devices operating on several physical processes have been used over the millennia. Some predecessors to the modern clock may be considered as "clocks" that are based on movement in nature: A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a flat surface. There is a range of duration timers, a well-known example being the hourglass. Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments. A major advance occurred with the invention of the verge escapement, which made possible the first mechanical clocks around 1300 in Europe, which kept time with oscillating timekeepers like balance wheels.[2][3][4][5] Traditionally, in horology, the term clock was used for a striking clock, while a clock that did not strike the hours audibly was called a timepiece. This distinction is no longer made. Watches and other timepieces that can be carried on one's person are usually not referred to as clocks.[6] Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century. During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished. The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock by Christiaan Huygens. A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. The mechanism of a timepiece with a series of gears driven by a spring or weights is referred to as clockwork; the term is used by extension for a similar mechanism not used in a timepiece. The electric clock was patented in 1840, and electronic clocks were introduced in the 20th century, becoming widespread with the development of small battery-powered semiconductor devices. The timekeeping element in every modern clock is a harmonic oscillator, a physical object (resonator) that vibrates or oscillates at a particular frequency.[3] This object can be a pendulum, a tuning fork, a quartz crystal, or the vibration of electrons in atoms as they emit microwaves. Clocks have different ways of displaying the time. Analog clocks indicate time with a traditional clock face, with moving hands. Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time. Two numbering systems are in use: 24-hour time notation and 12-hour notation. Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays. For the blind and for use over telephones, speaking clocks state the time audibly in words. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by touch. The study of timekeeping is known as horology. Etymology The word clock derives from the medieval Latin word for 'bell'—clocca—and has cognates in many European languages. Clocks spread to England from the Low Countries,[7] so the English word came from the Middle Low German and Middle Dutch Klocke.[8] The word derives from the Middle English clokke, Old North French cloque, or Middle Dutch clocke, all of which mean 'bell', and stem from an Old Irish root.[9] History of time-measuring devices Main article: History of timekeeping devices Sundials Simple horizontal sundial Main article: Sundial The apparent position of the Sun in the sky moves over the course of each day, reflecting the rotation of the Earth. Shadows cast by stationary objects move correspondingly, so their positions can be used to indicate the time of day. A sundial shows the time by displaying the position of a shadow on a (usually) flat surface, which has markings that correspond to the hours.[10] Sundials can be horizontal, vertical, or in other orientations. Sundials were widely used in ancient times.[11] With the knowledge of latitude, a well-constructed sundial can measure local solar time with reasonable accuracy, within a minute or two. Sundials continued to be used to monitor the performance of clocks until the 1830s, with the use of the telegraph and train to standardize time and time zones between cities.[12] Devices that measure duration, elapsed time and intervals The flow of sand in an hourglass can be used to keep track of elapsed time Many devices can be used to mark the passage of time without respect to reference time (time of day, hours, minutes, etc.) and can be useful for measuring duration or intervals. Examples of such duration timers are candle clocks, incense clocks and the hourglass. Both the candle clock and the incense clock work on the same principle wherein the consumption of resources is more or less constant allowing reasonably precise and repeatable estimates of time passages. In the hourglass, fine sand pouring through a tiny hole at a constant rate indicates an arbitrary, predetermined passage of time. The resource is not consumed but re-used. Water clocks Main article: Water clock A water clock for goldbeating goldleaf in Mandalay (Myanmar) Water clocks, along with the sundials, are possibly the oldest time-measuring instruments, with the only exceptions being the day counting tally stick.[13] Given their great antiquity, where and when they first existed is not known and perhaps unknowable. The bowl-shaped outflow is the simplest form of a water clock and is known to have existed in Babylon and in Egypt around the 16th century BC. Other regions of the world, including India and China, also have early evidence of water clocks, but the earliest dates are less certain. Some authors, however, write about water clocks appearing as early as 4000 BC in these regions of the world.[14] Greek astronomer Andronicus of Cyrrhus supervised the construction of the Tower of the Winds in Athens in the 1st century B.C.[15] The Greek and Roman civilizations advanced water clock design with improved accuracy. These advances were passed on through Byzantine and Islamic times, eventually making their way back to Europe. Independently, the Chinese developed their own advanced water clocks(水鐘)in 725 AD, passing their ideas on to Korea and Japan. Some water clock designs were developed independently and some knowledge was transferred through the spread of trade. Pre-modern societies do not have the same precise timekeeping requirements that exist in modern industrial societies, where every hour of work or rest is monitored, and work may start or finish at any time regardless of external conditions. Instead, water clocks in ancient societies were used mainly for astrological reasons. These early water clocks were calibrated with a sundial. While never reaching the level of accuracy of a modern timepiece, the water clock was the most accurate and commonly used timekeeping device for millennia, until it was replaced by the more accurate pendulum clock in 17th-century Europe. Islamic civilization is credited with further advancing the accuracy of clocks with elaborate engineering. In 797 (or possibly 801), the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, presented Charlemagne with an Asian elephant named Abul-Abbas together with a "particularly elaborate example" of a water[16] clock. Pope Sylvester II introduced clocks to northern and western Europe around 1000 AD.[17] Mechanical water clocks See also: Automaton § Ancient The first known geared clock was invented by the great mathematician, physicist, and engineer Archimedes during the 3rd century BC. Archimedes created his astronomical clock[18] that was also a cuckoo clock with birds singing and moving every hour. It is the first carillon clock as it plays music and simultaneously with a person blinking his eyes surprised by the singing birds. Archimedes clock works with a system of four weights, counter weights, and strings regulated by a system of floats in a water container with siphons that regulate the automatic continuation of the clock. The principles of this type of clocks are described by the mathematician and physicist Hero,[19] who says that some of them work with a chain that turns a gear of the mechanism.[20] Another Greek clock probably constructed at the time of Alexander was in Gaza, described by Procopius.[21] The Gaza clock was probably a Meteoroskopeion, i.e. a building showing the celestial phenomena and the time. It had pointer for the time and some automations similar to the Archimedes clock. There were 12 doors opening one every hour with Hercules performing his labors, the Lion at one o'clock, etc., and at night a lamp becomes visible every hour, with 12 windows opening to show the time. Another geared clock was developed in the 11th century by the Arab engineer Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi in Islamic Iberia; it was a water clock that employed a complex gear train mechanism, including both segmental and epicyclic gearing,[22][23] capable of transmitting high torque. The clock was unrivalled in its use of sophisticated complex gearing, until the mechanical clocks of the mid-14th century.[23] Al-Muradi's clock also employed the use of mercury in its hydraulic linkages,[24][25] which could function mechanical automata.[25] Al-Muradi's work was known to scholars working under Alfonso X of Castile,[26] hence the mechanism may have played a role in the development of the European mechanical clocks.[23] Other monumental water clocks constructed by medieval Muslim engineers also employed complex gear trains and arrays of automata.[27] Arab engineers at the time also developed a liquid-driven escapement mechanism which they employed in some of their water clocks. Heavy floats were used as weights and a constant-head system was used as an escapement mechanism,[22] which was present in the hydraulic controls they used to make heavy floats descend at a slow and steady rate.[27] A scale model of Su Song's Astronomical Clock Tower, built in 11th-century Kaifeng, China. It was driven by a large waterwheel, chain drive, and escapement mechanism A water-powered cogwheel clock was created in China by Yi Xing and Liang Lingzan. This is not considered an escapement mechanism clock as it was unidirectional, the Song dynasty polymath and genius Su Song (1020–1101) incorporated it into his monumental innovation of the astronomical clock-tower of Kaifeng in 1088.[28][29][page needed] His astronomical clock and rotating armillary sphere still relied on the use of either flowing water during the spring, summer, autumn seasons and liquid mercury during the freezing temperature of winter (i.e. hydraulics). A mercury clock, described in the Libros del saber, a Spanish work from 1277 consisting of translations and paraphrases of Arabic works, is sometimes quoted as evidence for Muslim knowledge of a mechanical clock. A mercury-powered cogwheel clock was created by Ibn Khalaf al-Muradi.[25][30] An elephant clock in a manuscript by Al-Jazari (1206 AD) from The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices[31] In the 13th century, Al-Jazari, an engineer from Mesopotamia (lived 1136–1206) who worked for Artuqid king of Diyar-Bakr, Nasir al-Din, made numerous clocks of all shapes and sizes. A book on his work described 50 mechanical devices in 6 categories, including water clocks. The most reputed clocks included the elephant, scribe, and castle clocks, all of which have been successfully reconstructed. As well as telling the time, these grand clocks were symbols of status, grandeur and wealth of the Urtuq State.[citation needed] Fully mechanical This section needs attention from an expert in Time. See the talk page for details. WikiProject Time may be able to help recruit an expert. (August 2016) Examples of fully mechanical clocks The word horologia (from the Greek ὥρα—'hour', and λέγειν—'to tell') was used to describe early mechanical clocks,[32] but the use of this word (still used in several Romance languages)[33] for all timekeepers conceals the true nature of the mechanisms. For example, there is a record that in 1176 Sens Cathedral installed an 'horologe'[34] but the mechanism used is unknown. According to Jocelin of Brakelond, in 1198 during a fire at the abbey of St Edmundsbury (now Bury St Edmunds), the monks 'ran to the clock' to fetch water, indicating that their water clock had a reservoir large enough to help extinguish the occasional fire.[35] The word clock (via Medieval Latin clocca from Old Irish clocc, both meaning 'bell'), which gradually supersedes "horologe", suggests that it was the sound of bells which also characterized the prototype mechanical clocks that appeared during the 13th century in Europe. A 17th century weight-driven clock In Europe, between 1280 and 1320, there was an increase in the number of references to clocks and horologes in church records, and this probably indicates that a new type of clock mechanism had been devised. Existing clock mechanisms that used water power were being adapted to take their driving power from falling weights. This power was controlled by some form of oscillating mechanism, probably derived from existing bell-ringing or alarm devices. This controlled release of power—the escapement—marks the beginning of the true mechanical clock, which differed from the previously mentioned cogwheel clocks. Verge escapement mechanism derived in the surge of true mechanical clocks, which didn't need any kind of fluid power, like water or mercury, to work. These mechanical clocks were intended for two main purposes: for signalling and notification (e.g. the timing of services and public events), and for modeling the solar system. The former purpose is administrative, the latter arises naturally given the scholarly interests in astronomy, science, astrology, and how these subjects integrated with the religious philosophy of the time. The astrolabe was used both by astronomers and astrologers, and it was natural to apply a clockwork drive to the rotating plate to produce a working model of the solar system. Simple clocks intended mainly for notification were installed in towers, and did not always require faces or hands. They would have announced the canonical hours or intervals between set times of prayer. Canonical hours varied in length as the times of sunrise and sunset shifted. The more sophisticated astronomical clocks would have had moving dials or hands, and would have shown the time in various time systems, including Italian hours, canonical hours, and time as measured by astronomers at the time. Both styles of clock started acquiring extravagant features such as automata. In 1283, a large clock was installed at Dunstable Priory; its location above the rood screen suggests that it was not a water clock.[36] In 1292, Canterbury Cathedral installed a 'great horloge'. Over the next 30 years there are mentions of clocks at a number of ecclesiastical institutions in England, Italy, and France. In 1322, a new clock was installed in Norwich, an expensive replacement for an earlier clock installed in 1273. This had a large (2 metre) astronomical dial with automata and bells. The costs of the installation included the full-time employment of two clockkeepers for two years.[36] Astronomical Richard of Wallingford pointing to a clock, his gift to St Albans Abbey 16th-century clock machine Convent of Christ, Tomar, Portugal Besides the Chinese astronomical clock of Su Song in 1088 mentioned above, contemporary Muslim astronomers also constructed a variety of highly accurate astronomical clocks for use in their mosques and observatories,[37] such as the water-powered astronomical clock by Al-Jazari in 1206,[38] and the astrolabic clock by Ibn al-Shatir in the early 14th century.[39] The most sophisticated timekeeping astrolabes were the geared astrolabe mechanisms designed by Abū Rayhān Bīrūnī in the 11th century and by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr in the 13th century. These devices functioned as timekeeping devices and also as calendars.[22] A sophisticated water-powered astronomical clock was built by Al-Jazari in 1206. This castle clock was a complex device that was about 11 feet (3.4 m) high, and had multiple functions alongside timekeeping. It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar paths, and a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which travelled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour.[40][41] It was possible to reset the length of day and night in order to account for the changing lengths of day and night throughout the year. This clock also featured a number of automata including falcons and musicians who automatically played music when moved by levers operated by a hidden camshaft attached to a water wheel.[42] In Europe, there were the clocks constructed by Richard of Wallingford in St Albans by 1336, and by Giovanni de Dondi in Padua from 1348 to 1364. They no longer exist, but detailed descriptions of their design and construction survive,[43][44] and modern reproductions have been made.[44] They illustrate how quickly the theory of the mechanical clock had been translated into practical constructions, and also that one of the many impulses to their development had been the desire of astronomers to investigate celestial phenomena. Wallingford's clock had a large astrolabe-type dial, showing the sun, the moon's age, phase, and node, a star map, and possibly the planets. In addition, it had a wheel of fortune and an indicator of the state of the tide at London Bridge. Bells rang every hour, the number of strokes indicating the time.[43] Dondi's clock was a seven-sided construction, 1 metre high, with dials showing the time of day, including minutes, the motions of all the known planets, an automatic calendar of fixed and movable feasts, and an eclipse prediction hand rotating once every 18 years.[44] It is not known how accurate or reliable these clocks would have been. They were probably adjusted manually every day to compensate for errors caused by wear and imprecise manufacture. Water clocks are sometimes still used today, and can be examined in places such as ancient castles and museums. The Salisbury Cathedral clock, built in 1386, is considered to be the world's oldest surviving mechanical clock that strikes the hours.[45] Spring-driven Examples of spring-driven clocks Clockmakers developed their art in various ways. Building smaller clocks was a technical challenge, as was improving accuracy and reliability. Clocks could be impressive showpieces to demonstrate skilled craftsmanship, or less expensive, mass-produced items for domestic use. The escapement in particular was an important factor affecting the clock's accuracy, so many different mechanisms were tried. Spring-driven clocks appeared during the 15th century,[46][47][48] although they are often erroneously credited to Nuremberg watchmaker Peter Henlein (or Henle, or Hele) around 1511.[49][50][51] The earliest existing spring driven clock is the chamber clock given to Phillip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, around 1430, now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum.[5] Spring power presented clockmakers with a new problem: how to keep the clock movement running at a constant rate as the spring ran down. This resulted in the invention of the stackfreed and the fusee in the 15th century, and many other innovations, down to the invention of the modern going barrel in 1760. Early clock dials did not indicate minutes and seconds. A clock with a dial indicating minutes was illustrated in a 1475 manuscript by Paulus Almanus,[52] and some 15th-century clocks in Germany indicated minutes and seconds.[53] An early record of a seconds hand on a clock dates back to about 1560 on a clock now in the Fremersdorf collection.[54]: 417–418 [55] During the 15th and 16th centuries, clockmaking flourished, particularly in the metalworking towns of Nuremberg and Augsburg, and in Blois, France. Some of the more basic table clocks have only one time-keeping hand, with the dial between the hour markers being divided into four equal parts making the clocks readable to the nearest 15 minutes. Other clocks were exhibitions of craftsmanship and skill, incorporating astronomical indicators and musical movements. The cross-beat escapement was invented in 1584 by Jost Bürgi, who also developed the remontoire. Bürgi's clocks were a great improvement in accuracy as they were correct to within a minute a day.[56][57] These clocks helped the 16th-century astronomer Tycho Brahe to observe astronomical events with much greater precision than before.[citation needed][how?] Lantern clock, German, circa 1570 Pendulum The Dutch polymath and horologist Christiaan Huygens, the inventor of first precision timekeeping devices (pendulum clock and spiral-hairspring watch)[58] The first pendulum clock, designed by Christiaan Huygens in 1656 The next development in accuracy occurred after 1656 with the invention of the pendulum clock. Galileo had the idea to use a swinging bob to regulate the motion of a time-telling device earlier in the 17th century. Christiaan Huygens, however, is usually credited as the inventor. He determined the mathematical formula that related pendulum length to time (about 99.4 cm or 39.1 inches for the one second movement) and had the first pendulum-driven clock made. The first model clock was built in 1657 in the Hague, but it was in England that the idea was taken up.[59] The longcase clock (also known as the grandfather clock) was created to house the pendulum and works by the English clockmaker William Clement in 1670 or 1671. It was also at this time that clock cases began to be made of wood and clock faces to use enamel as well as hand-painted ceramics. In 1670, William Clement created the anchor escapement,[60] an improvement over Huygens' crown escapement. Clement also introduced the pendulum suspension spring in 1671. The concentric minute hand was added to the clock by Daniel Quare, a London clockmaker and others, and the second hand was first introduced. Hairspring In 1675, Huygens and Robert Hooke invented the spiral balance spring, or the hairspring, designed to control the oscillating speed of the balance wheel. This crucial advance finally made accurate pocket watches possible. The great English clockmaker Thomas Tompion, was one of the first to use this mechanism successfully in his pocket watches, and he adopted the minute hand which, after a variety of designs were trialled, eventually stabilised into the modern-day configuration.[61] The rack and snail striking mechanism for striking clocks, was introduced during the 17th century and had distinct advantages over the 'countwheel' (or 'locking plate') mechanism. During the 20th century there was a common misconception that Edward Barlow invented rack and snail striking. In fact, his invention was connected with a repeating mechanism employing the rack and snail.[62] The repeating clock, that chimes the number of hours (or even minutes) on demand was invented by either Quare or Barlow in 1676. George Graham invented the deadbeat escapement for clocks in 1720. Marine chronometer A major stimulus to improving the accuracy and reliability of clocks was the importance of precise time-keeping for navigation. The position of a ship at sea could be determined with reasonable accuracy if a navigator could refer to a clock that lost or gained less than about 10 seconds per day. This clock could not contain a pendulum, which would be virtually useless on a rocking ship. In 1714, the British government offered large financial rewards to the value of 20,000 pounds[63] for anyone who could determine longitude accurately. John Harrison, who dedicated his life to improving the accuracy of his clocks, later received considerable sums under the Longitude Act. In 1735, Harrison built his first chronometer, which he steadily improved on over the next thirty years before submitting it for examination. The clock had many innovations, including the use of bearings to reduce friction, weighted balances to compensate for the ship's pitch and roll in the sea and the use of two different metals to reduce the problem of expansion from heat. The chronometer was tested in 1761 by Harrison's son and by the end of 10 weeks the clock was in error by less than 5 seconds.[64] Opened-up pocket watch Mass production The British had predominated in watch manufacture for much of the 17th and 18th centuries, but maintained a system of production that was geared towards high quality products for the elite.[65] Although there was an attempt to modernise clock manufacture with mass-production techniques and the application of duplicating tools and machinery by the British Watch Company in 1843, it was in the United States that this system took off. In 1816, Eli Terry and some other Connecticut clockmakers developed a way of mass-producing clocks by using interchangeable parts.[66] Aaron Lufkin Dennison started a factory in 1851 in Massachusetts that also used interchangeable parts, and by 1861 was running a successful enterprise incorporated as the Waltham Watch Company.[67][68] Early electric Main article: Electric clock Early French electromagnetic clock In 1815, Francis Ronalds published the first electric clock powered by dry pile batteries.[69] Alexander Bain, Scottish clockmaker, patented the electric clock in 1840. The electric clock's mainspring is wound either with an electric motor or with an electromagnet and armature. In 1841, he first patented the electromagnetic pendulum. By the end of the nineteenth century, the advent of the dry cell battery made it feasible to use electric power in clocks. Spring or weight driven clocks that use electricity, either alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC), to rewind the spring or raise the weight of a mechanical clock would be classified as an electromechanical clock. This classification would also apply to clocks that employ an electrical impulse to propel the pendulum. In electromechanical clocks the electricity serves no time keeping function. These types of clocks were made as individual timepieces but more commonly used in synchronized time installations in schools, businesses, factories, railroads and government facilities as a master clock and slave clocks. Where an AC electrical supply of stable frequency is available, timekeeping can be maintained very reliably by using a synchronous motor, essentially counting the cycles. The supply current alternates with an accurate frequency of 50 hertz in many countries, and 60 hertz in others. While the frequency may vary slightly during the day as the load changes, generators are designed to maintain an accurate number of cycles over a day, so the clock may be a fraction of a second slow or fast at any time, but will be perfectly accurate over a long time. The rotor of the motor rotates at a speed that is related to the alternation frequency. Appropriate gearing converts this rotation speed to the correct ones for the hands of the analog clock. Time in these cases is measured in several ways, such as by counting the cycles of the AC supply, vibration of a tuning fork, the behaviour of quartz crystals, or the quantum vibrations of atoms. Electronic circuits divide these high-frequency oscillations to slower ones that drive the time display. Quartz Picture of a quartz crystal resonator, used as the timekeeping component in quartz watches and clocks, with the case removed. It is formed in the shape of a tuning fork. Most such quartz clock crystals vibrate at a frequency of 32768 Hz The piezoelectric properties of crystalline quartz were discovered by Jacques and Pierre Curie in 1880.[70][71] The first crystal oscillator was invented in 1917 by Alexander M. Nicholson, after which the first quartz crystal oscillator was built by Walter G. Cady in 1921.[3] In 1927 the first quartz clock was built by Warren Marrison and J.W. Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories in Canada.[72][3] The following decades saw the development of quartz clocks as precision time measurement devices in laboratory settings—the bulky and delicate counting electronics, built with vacuum tubes at the time, limited their practical use elsewhere. The National Bureau of Standards (now NIST) based the time standard of the United States on quartz clocks from late 1929 until the 1960s, when it changed to atomic clocks.[73] In 1969, Seiko produced the world's first quartz wristwatch, the Astron.[74] Their inherent accuracy and low cost of production resulted in the subsequent proliferation of quartz clocks and watches.[70] Atomic Currently, atomic clocks are the most accurate clocks in existence. They are considerably more accurate than quartz clocks as they can be accurate to within a few seconds over trillions of years.[75][76] Atomic clocks were first theorized by Lord Kelvin in 1879.[77] In the 1930s the development of magnetic resonance created practical method for doing this.[78] A prototype ammonia maser device was built in 1949 at the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS, now NIST). Although it was less accurate than existing quartz clocks, it served to demonstrate the concept.[79][80][81] The first accurate atomic clock, a caesium standard based on a certain transition of the caesium-133 atom, was built by Louis Essen in 1955 at the National Physical Laboratory in the UK.[82] Calibration of the caesium standard atomic clock was carried out by the use of the astronomical time scale ephemeris time (ET).[83] As of 2013, the most stable atomic clocks are ytterbium clocks, which are stable to within less than two parts in 1 quintillion (2×10−18).[84] Operation The invention of the mechanical clock in the 13th century initiated a change in timekeeping methods from continuous processes, such as the motion of the gnomon's shadow on a sundial or the flow of liquid in a water clock, to periodic oscillatory processes, such as the swing of a pendulum or the vibration of a quartz crystal,[4][85] which had the potential for more accuracy. All modern clocks use oscillation. Although the mechanisms they use vary, all oscillating clocks, mechanical, electric, and atomic, work similarly and can be divided into analogous parts.[86][87][88] They consist of an object that repeats the same motion over and over again, an oscillator, with a precisely constant time interval between each repetition, or 'beat'. Attached to the oscillator is a controller device, which sustains the oscillator's motion by replacing the energy it loses to friction, and converts its oscillations into a series of pulses. The pulses are then counted by some type of counter, and the number of counts is converted into convenient units, usually seconds, minutes, hours, etc. Finally some kind of indicator displays the result in human readable form. Power source In mechanical clocks, the power source is typically either a weight suspended from a cord or chain wrapped around a pulley, sprocket or drum; or a spiral spring called a mainspring. Mechanical clocks must be wound periodically, usually by turning a knob or key or by pulling on the free end of the chain, to store energy in the weight or spring to keep the clock running. In electric clocks, the power source is either a battery or the AC power line. In clocks that use AC power, a small backup battery is often included to keep the clock running if it is unplugged temporarily from the wall or during a power outage. Battery-powered analog wall clocks are available that operate over 15 years between battery changes. Oscillator Balance wheel, the oscillator in a mechanical mantel clock. The timekeeping element in every modern clock is a harmonic oscillator, a physical object (resonator) that vibrates or oscillates repetitively at a precisely constant frequency.[3] In mechanical clocks, this is either a pendulum or a balance wheel. In some early electronic clocks and watches such as the Accutron, it is a tuning fork. In quartz clocks and watches, it is a quartz crystal. In atomic clocks, it is the vibration of electrons in atoms as they emit microwaves. In early mechanical clocks before 1657, it was a crude balance wheel or foliot which was not a harmonic oscillator because it lacked a balance spring. As a result, they were very inaccurate, with errors of perhaps an hour a day.[89] The advantage of a harmonic oscillator over other forms of oscillator is that it employs resonance to vibrate at a precise natural resonant frequency or "beat" dependent only on its physical characteristics, and resists vibrating at other rates. The possible precision achievable by a harmonic oscillator is measured by a parameter called its Q,[90][91] or quality factor, which increases (other things being equal) with its resonant frequency.[92] This is why there has been a long-term trend toward higher frequency oscillators in clocks. Balance wheels and pendulums always include a means of adjusting the rate of the timepiece. Quartz timepieces sometimes include a rate screw that adjusts a capacitor for that purpose. Atomic clocks are primary standards, and their rate cannot be adjusted. Synchronized or slave clocks The Shepherd Gate Clock receives its timing signal from within the Royal Observatory, Greenwich Some clocks rely for their accuracy on an external oscillator; that is, they are automatically synchronized to a more accurate clock: Bibb County, Macon GA Courthouse, clock tower, circa 1876 Slave clocks, used in large institutions and schools from the 1860s to the 1970s, kept time with a pendulum, but were wired to a master clock in the building, and periodically received a signal to synchronize them with the master, often on the hour.[93] Later versions without pendulums were triggered by a pulse from the master clock and certain sequences used to force rapid synchronization following a power failure. Synchronous electric clock, around 1940. By 1940 the synchronous clock became the most common type of clock in the U.S. Synchronous electric clocks do not have an internal oscillator, but count cycles of the 50 or 60 Hz oscillation of the AC power line, which is synchronized by the utility to a precision oscillator. The counting may be done electronically, usually in clocks with digital displays, or, in analog clocks, the AC may drive a synchronous motor which rotates an exact fraction of a revolution for every cycle of the line voltage, and drives the gear train. Although changes in the grid line frequency due to load variations may cause the clock to temporarily gain or lose several seconds during the course of a day, the total number of cycles per 24 hours is maintained extremely accurately by the utility company, so that the clock keeps time accurately over long periods. Computer real time clocks keep time with a quartz crystal, but can be periodically (usually weekly) synchronized over the Internet to atomic clocks (UTC), using the Network Time Protocol (NTP). Radio clocks keep time with a quartz crystal, but are periodically synchronized to time signals transmitted from dedicated standard time radio stations or satellite navigation signals, which are set by atomic clocks. Controller This has the dual function of keeping the oscillator running by giving it 'pushes' to replace the energy lost to friction, and converting its vibrations into a series of pulses that serve to measure the time. In mechanical clocks, this is the escapement, which gives precise pushes to the swinging pendulum or balance wheel, and releases one gear tooth of the escape wheel at each swing, allowing all the clock's wheels to move forward a fixed amount with each swing. In electronic clocks this is an electronic oscillator circuit that gives the vibrating quartz crystal or tuning fork tiny 'pushes', and generates a series of electrical pulses, one for each vibration of the crystal, which is called the clock signal. In atomic clocks the controller is an evacuated microwave cavity attached to a microwave oscillator controlled by a microprocessor. A thin gas of caesium atoms is released into the cavity where they are exposed to microwaves. A laser measures how many atoms have absorbed the microwaves, and an electronic feedback control system called a phase-locked loop tunes the microwave oscillator until it is at the frequency that causes the atoms to vibrate and absorb the microwaves. Then the microwave signal is divided by digital counters to become the clock signal.[94] In mechanical clocks, the low Q of the balance wheel or pendulum oscillator made them very sensitive to the disturbing effect of the impulses of the escapement, so the escapement had a great effect on the accuracy of the clock, and many escapement designs were tried. The higher Q of resonators in electronic clocks makes them relatively insensitive to the disturbing effects of the drive power, so the driving oscillator circuit is a much less critical component.[3] Counter chain This counts the pulses and adds them up to get traditional time units of seconds, minutes, hours, etc. It usually has a provision for setting the clock by manually entering the correct time into the counter. In mechanical clocks this is done mechanically by a gear train, known as the wheel train. The gear train also has a second function; to transmit mechanical power from the power source to run the oscillator. There is a friction coupling called the 'cannon pinion' between the gears driving the hands and the rest of the clock, allowing the hands to be turned to set the time.[95] In digital clocks a series of integrated circuit counters or dividers add the pulses up digitally, using binary logic. Often pushbuttons on the case allow the hour and minute counters to be incremented and decremented to set the time. Indicator File:Cuckoo strikes the 8th hour.ogv A cuckoo clock with mechanical automaton and sound producer striking on the eighth hour on the analog dial This displays the count of seconds, minutes, hours, etc. in a human readable form. The earliest mechanical clocks in the 13th century did not have a visual indicator and signalled the time audibly by striking bells. Many clocks to this day are striking clocks which strike the hour. Analog clocks display time with an analog clock face, which consists of a dial with the numbers 1 through 12 or 24, the hours in the day, around the outside. The hours are indicated with an hour hand, which makes one or two revolutions in a day, while the minutes are indicated by a minute hand, which makes one revolution per hour. In mechanical clocks a gear train drives the hands; in electronic clocks the circuit produces pulses every second which drive a stepper motor and gear train, which move the hands. Digital clocks display the time in periodically changing digits on a digital display. A common misconception is that a digital clock is more accurate than an analog wall clock, but the indicator type is separate and apart from the accuracy of the timing source. Talking clocks and the speaking clock services provided by telephone companies speak the time audibly, using either recorded or digitally synthesized voices. Types Clocks can be classified by the type of time display, as well as by the method of timekeeping. Time display methods Analog See also: Clock face A modern quartz clock with a 24-hour face A linear clock at London's Piccadilly Circus tube station. The 24 hour band moves across the static map, keeping pace with the apparent movement of the sun above ground, and a pointer fixed on London points to the current time. Analog clocks usually use a clock face which indicates time using rotating pointers called "hands" on a fixed numbered dial or dials. The standard clock face, known universally throughout the world, has a short "hour hand" which indicates the hour on a circular dial of 12 hours, making two revolutions per day, and a longer "minute hand" which indicates the minutes in the current hour on the same dial, which is also divided into 60 minutes. It may also have a "second hand" which indicates the seconds in the current minute. The only other widely used clock face today is the 24 hour analog dial, because of the use of 24 hour time in military organizations and timetables. Before the modern clock face was standardized during the Industrial Revolution, many other face designs were used throughout the years, including dials divided into 6, 8, 10, and 24 hours. During the French Revolution the French government tried to introduce a 10-hour clock, as part of their decimal-based metric system of measurement, but it did not achieve widespread use. An Italian 6 hour clock was developed in the 18th century, presumably to save power (a clock or watch striking 24 times uses more power). Another type of analog clock is the sundial, which tracks the sun continuously, registering the time by the shadow position of its gnomon. Because the sun does not adjust to daylight saving time, users must add an hour during that time. Corrections must also be made for the equation of time, and for the difference between the longitudes of the sundial and of the central meridian of the time zone that is being used (i.e. 15 degrees east of the prime meridian for each hour that the time zone is ahead of GMT). Sundials use some or part of the 24 hour analog dial. There also exist clocks which use a digital display despite having an analog mechanism—these are commonly referred to as flip clocks. Alternative systems have been proposed. For example, the "Twelv" clock indicates the current hour using one of twelve colors, and indicates the minute by showing a proportion of a circular disk, similar to a moon phase.[96] Digital Main article: Digital clock Examples of digital clocks Digital clocks display a numeric representation of time. Two numeric display formats are commonly used on digital clocks: the 24-hour notation with hours ranging 00–23; the 12-hour notation with AM/PM indicator, with hours indicated as 12AM, followed by 1AM–11AM, followed by 12PM, followed by 1PM–11PM (a notation mostly used in domestic environments). Most digital clocks use electronic mechanisms and LCD, LED, or VFD displays; many other display technologies are used as well (cathode ray tubes, nixie tubes, etc.). After a reset, battery change or power failure, these clocks without a backup battery or capacitor either start counting from 12:00, or stay at 12:00, often with blinking digits indicating that the time needs to be set. Some newer clocks will reset themselves based on radio or Internet time servers that are tuned to national atomic clocks. Since the advent of digital clocks in the 1960s, the use of analog clocks has declined significantly.[citation needed] Some clocks, called 'flip clocks', have digital displays that work mechanically. The digits are painted on sheets of material which are mounted like the pages of a book. Once a minute, a page is turned over to reveal the next digit. These displays are usually easier to read in brightly lit conditions than LCDs or LEDs. Also, they do not go back to 12:00 after a power interruption. Flip clocks generally do not have electronic mechanisms. Usually, they are driven by AC-synchronous motors. Hybrid (analog-digital) Clocks with analog quadrants, with a digital component, usually minutes and hours displayed analogously and seconds displayed in digital mode. Auditory Main article: Talking clock For convenience, distance, telephony or blindness, auditory clocks present the time as sounds. The sound is either spoken natural language, (e.g. "The time is twelve thirty-five"), or as auditory codes (e.g. number of sequential bell rings on the hour represents the number of the hour like the bell, Big Ben). Most telecommunication companies also provide a speaking clock service as well. Word Software word clock Word clocks are clocks that display the time visually using sentences. E.g.: "It's about three o'clock." These clocks can be implemented in hardware or software. Projection Main article: Projection clock Some clocks, usually digital ones, include an optical projector that shines a magnified image of the time display onto a screen or onto a surface such as an indoor ceiling or wall. The digits are large enough to be easily read, without using glasses, by persons with moderately imperfect vision, so the clocks are convenient for use in their bedrooms. Usually, the timekeeping circuitry has a battery as a backup source for an uninterrupted power supply to keep the clock on time, while the projection light only works when the unit is connected to an A.C. supply. Completely battery-powered portable versions resembling flashlights are also available. Tactile Auditory and projection clocks can be used by people who are blind or have limited vision. There are also clocks for the blind that have displays that can be read by using the sense of touch. Some of these are similar to normal analog displays, but are constructed so the hands can be felt without damaging them. Another type is essentially digital, and uses devices that use a code such as Braille to show the digits so that they can be felt with the fingertips. Multi-display Some clocks have several displays driven by a single mechanism, and some others have several completely separate mechanisms in a single case. Clocks in public places often have several faces visible from different directions, so that the clock can be read from anywhere in the vicinity; all the faces show the same time. Other clocks show the current time in several time-zones. Watches that are intended to be carried by travellers often have two displays, one for the local time and the other for the time at home, which is useful for making pre-arranged phone calls. Some equation clocks have two displays, one showing mean time and the other solar time, as would be shown by a sundial. Some clocks have both analog and digital displays. Clocks with Braille displays usually also have conventional digits so they can be read by sighted people. Purposes Many cities and towns traditionally have public clocks in a prominent location, such as a town square or city center. This one is on display at the center of the town of Robbins, North Carolina A Napoleon III mantel clock, from the third quarter of the 19th century, in the Museu de Belles Arts de València from Spain Clocks are in homes, offices and many other places; smaller ones (watches) are carried on the wrist or in a pocket; larger ones are in public places, e.g. a railway station or church. A small clock is often shown in a corner of computer displays, mobile phones and many MP3 players. The primary purpose of a clock is to display the time. Clocks may also have the facility to make a loud alert signal at a specified time, typically to waken a sleeper at a preset time; they are referred to as alarm clocks. The alarm may start at a low volume and become louder, or have the facility to be switched off for a few minutes then resume. Alarm clocks with visible indicators are sometimes used to indicate to children too young to read the time that the time for sleep has finished; they are sometimes called training clocks. A clock mechanism may be used to control a device according to time, e.g. a central heating system, a VCR, or a time bomb (see: digital counter). Such mechanisms are usually called timers. Clock mechanisms are also used to drive devices such as solar trackers and astronomical telescopes, which have to turn at accurately controlled speeds to counteract the rotation of the Earth. Most digital computers depend on an internal signal at constant frequency to synchronize processing; this is referred to as a clock signal. (A few research projects are developing CPUs based on asynchronous circuits.) Some equipment, including computers, also maintains time and date for use as required; this is referred to as time-of-day clock, and is distinct from the system clock signal, although possibly based on counting its cycles. In Chinese culture, giving a clock (traditional Chinese: 送鐘; simplified Chinese: 送钟; pinyin: sòng zhōng) is often taboo, especially to the elderly as the term for this act is a hom*ophone with the term for the act of attending another's funeral (traditional Chinese: 送終; simplified Chinese: 送终; pinyin: sòngzhōng).[97][98][99] A UK government official Susan Kramer gave a watch to Taipei mayor Ko Wen-je unaware of such a taboo which resulted in some professional embarrassment and a pursuant apology.[100] This hom*onymic pair works in both Mandarin and Cantonese, although in most parts of China only clocks and large bells, and not watches, are called "zhong", and watches are commonly given as gifts in China. However, should such a gift be given, the "unluckiness" of the gift can be countered by exacting a small monetary payment so the recipient is buying the clock and thereby counteracting the '送' ("give") expression of the phrase. Time standards Main articles: Time standard and Atomic clock For some scientific work timing of the utmost accuracy is essential. It is also necessary to have a standard of the maximum accuracy against which working clocks can be calibrated. An ideal clock would give the time to unlimited accuracy, but this is not realisable. Many physical processes, in particular including some transitions between atomic energy levels, occur at exceedingly stable frequency; counting cycles of such a process can give a very accurate and consistent time—clocks which work this way are usually called atomic clocks. Such clocks are typically large, very expensive, require a controlled environment, and are far more accurate than required for most purposes; they are typically used in a standards laboratory. Navigation Until advances in the late twentieth century, navigation depended on the ability to measure latitude and longitude. Latitude can be determined through celestial navigation; the measurement of longitude requires accurate knowledge of time. This need was a major motivation for the development of accurate mechanical clocks. John Harrison created the first highly accurate marine chronometer in the mid-18th century. The Noon gun in Cape Town still fires an accurate signal to allow ships to check their chronometers. Many buildings near major ports used to have (some still do) a large ball mounted on a tower or mast arranged to drop at a pre-determined time, for the same purpose. While satellite navigation systems such as GPS require unprecedentedly accurate knowledge of time, this is supplied by equipment on the satellites; vehicles no longer need timekeeping equipment. Specific types A monumental conical pendulum clock by Eugène Farcot, 1867. Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA By mechanism By function By style Astronomical clock Atomic clock Candle clock Congreve clock Conical pendulum clock Digital clock Electric clock Flip clock Flying pendulum clock Hourglass Incense clock Inclined plane clock Lamport clock Mechanical watch Oil-lamp clock Pendulum clock Projection clock Pulsar clock Quantum clock Quartz clock Radio clock Rolling ball clock Spring drive watch Steam clock Sundial Torsion pendulum clock Water clock 10-hour clock Alarm clock Binary clock Chronometer watch Cuckoo clock Duodecimal clock Equation clock Game clock Japanese clock Master clock Musical clock Railroad chronometer Slave clock Speaking clock Stopwatch Striking clock Talking clock Tide clock Time ball Time clock World clock American clock Automaton clock Balloon clock Banjo clock Bracket clock Carriage clock Cartel clock Cat clock Chariot clock Clock tower Cuckoo clock Doll's head clock Floral clock French Empire mantel clock Grandfather clock Lantern clock Lighthouse clock Mantel clock Skeleton clock Turret clock Watch See also 24-hour analog dial Allan variance Allen-Bradley Clock Tower at Rockwell Automation Headquarters Building (Wisconsin) American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute BaselWorld Biological clock Castle clock Clockarium Clock as herald of the Industrial Revolution (Lewis Mumford) Clock face Clock drift Clock ident Clock network Clock of the Long Now Clock signal (digital circuits) Clockkeeper Clockmaker Colgate Clock (Indiana) Colgate Clock (New Jersey), largest clock in USA Corpus Clock Cosmo Clock 21, world's largest clock Cox's timepiece Cuckooland Museum Date and time representation by country Debt clock Le Défenseur du Temps (automata) Department of Defense master clock (U.S.) Doomsday Clock Earth clock Equation clock Federation of the Swiss Watch Industry FH Guard tour patrol system (watchclocks) Iron Ring Clock Jens Olsen's World Clock Jewel bearing List of biggest clock faces List of clocks List of international common standards List of largest cuckoo clocks Metrology Mora clock National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors Projection clock Replica watch Rubik's Clock Star clock Singing bird box System time Time to digital converter Timeline of time measurement technology Timer Watch Watchmaker Portal: Technology Notes and references see Baillie et al., p. 307; Palmer, p. 19; Zea & Cheney, p. 172 Dohrn-van Rossum, Gerhard (1996). History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. Univ. of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-15511-1., pp. 103–104 Marrison, Warren (1948). "The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock" (PDF). Bell System Technical Journal. 27 (3): 510–588. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01343.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 10, 2014. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Cipolla, Carlo M. (2004). Clocks and Culture, 1300 to 1700. W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN 978-0-393-32443-3., p. 31 White, Lynn, Jr. (1962). Medieval Technology and Social Change. UK: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 119. "Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary". Retrieved January 29, 2018. a device for measuring and showing time, which is usually found in or on a building and is not worn by a person Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1859). A Dictionary of English Etymology: A – D, Vol. 1. London: Trübner and Co. p. 354. Stevenson, Angus; Waite, Maurice (2011). Concise Oxford English Dictionary: Luxury Edition. Oxford University. pp. 269–270. ISBN 9780199601110. "Clock". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved June 20, 2008. "How Sundials Work". The British Sundial Society. Retrieved November 10, 2014. "Ancient Sundials". North American Sundial Society. Retrieved November 10, 2014. Sara Schecner Genuth, "Sundials", in John Lankford and Marc Rothenberg, eds., History of Astronomy: An Encyclopedia (London: Taylor & Francis, 1997), 502-3. ISBN 9780815303220 Turner 1984, p. 1 Cowan 1958, p. 58 "Tower of the Winds – Athens". James, Peter (1995). Ancient Inventions. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-345-40102-1. William Godwin (1876). Lives of the Necromancers. London, F.J. Mason. p. 232. Moussas, Xenophon (2018). The Antikythera Mechanism, the first mechanical cosmos (in Greek). Athens: Canto Mediterraneo. ISBN 978-618-83695-0-4. Dasypodius, K. (1580). Heron mechanicus. Hero, of Alexandria. see Hero's books: Pneumatica (Πνευματικά), Automata, Mechanica, Metrica, Dioptra. Alexandria. Procopius of Caesarea, Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς (c. 500s). Περὶ Κτισμάτων, Perì Ktismáton; Latin: De Aedificiis, On Buildings. Hassan, Ahmad Y, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, History of Science and Technology in Islam Donald Routledge Hill (1996). A history of engineering in classical and medieval times. Routledge. pp. 203, 223, 242. ISBN 0-415-15291-7. Donald Routledge Hill (1991). "Arabic Mechanical Engineering: Survey of the Historical sources". Arabic Sciences and Philosophy: A Historical Journal. Cambridge University Press. 1 (2): 167–186 [173]. doi:10.1017/S0957423900001478. S2CID 145180608. Mario Taddei. "The Book of Secrets is coming to the world after a thousand years: Automata existed already in the eleventh century!" (PDF). Leonardo3. Retrieved March 31, 2010. Juan Vernet; Julio Samso (January 1, 1996). "Development of Arabic Science in Andalusia". In Roshdi Rashed; Régis Morelon (eds.). Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science. Vol. 1. Routledge. pp. 243–275 [260–1]. ISBN 0-415-12410-7. Donald Routledge Hill (1996), "Engineering", p. 794, in Rashed & Morelon (1996) pp. 751–95 "No. 120: Su-Sung's Clock". Retrieved February 18, 2021. History of Song 宋史, Vol. 340 Donald Routledge Hill (1991). "Arabic Mechanical Engineering: Survey of the Historical sources". Arabic Sciences and Philosophy. 1 (2): 167–186 [173]. doi:10.1017/S0957423900001478. S2CID 145180608. Ibn al-Razzaz Al-Jazari (ed. 1974), The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices. Translated and annotated by Donald Routledge Hill, Dordrecht/D. Reidel. Leonhard Schmitz; Smith, William (1875). A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. London: John Murray. pp. 615‑617. Modern French horloge is very close; Spanish reloj and Portuguese relógio drop the first part of the word. Bulletin de la société archéologique de Sens, year 1867, vol. IX, p. 390, available at See also fr:Discussion:Horloge The Chronicle of Jocelin of Brakelond, Monk of St. Edmundsbury: A Picture of Monastic and Social Life on the XIIth Century. London: Chatto and Windus. Translated and edited by L.C. Jane. 1910. "Clocks – Crystalinks". Retrieved June 6, 2019. Ajram, K. (1992). "Appendix B". Miracle of Islamic Science. Knowledge House Publishers. ISBN 0-911119-43-4. Hill, Donald R. (May 1991). "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East". Scientific American. 264 (5): 64–69. Bibcode:1991SciAm.264e.100H. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0591-100. King, David A. (1983). "The Astronomy of the Mamluks". Isis. 74 (4): 531–555 [545–546]. doi:10.1086/353360. S2CID 144315162. Routledge Hill, Donald, "Mechanical Engineering in the Medieval Near East", Scientific American, May 1991, pp. 64–9 (cf. Donald Routledge Hill, Mechanical Engineering) Archived March 5, 2008, at the Wayback Machine Howard R. Turner (1997), Science in Medieval Islam: An Illustrated Introduction, p. 184. University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-78149-0. Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots. History Channel. Retrieved September 6, 2008. North, John. God's Clockmaker: Richard of Wallingford and the Invention of Time. London: Hambledon and London (2005). King, Henry "Geared to the Stars: the evolution of planetariums, orreries, and astronomical clocks", University of Toronto Press, 1978 Singer, Charles, et al. Oxford History of Technology: volume II, from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution (OUP 1957) pp. 650–651 White, Lynn Jr. (1966). Medieval Technology and Social Change. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 978-0-19-500266-9. Usher, Abbot Payson (1988). A History of Mechanical Inventions. Courier Dover. p. 305. ISBN 978-0-486-25593-4. Dohrn-van Rossum, Gerhar (1997). History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. Univ. of Chicago Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-226-15510-4. Milham, Willis I. (1945). Time and Timekeepers. New York: MacMillan. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-7808-0008-3. "Clock". The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 4. Univ. of Chicago. 1974. p. 747. ISBN 978-0-85229-290-7. Anzovin, Steve; Podell, Janet (2000). Famous First Facts: A record of first happenings, discoveries, and inventions in world history. H.W. Wilson. p. 440. ISBN 978-0-8242-0958-2. p. 529, "Time and timekeeping instruments", History of astronomy: an encyclopedia, John Lankford, Taylor & Francis, 1997, ISBN 0-8153-0322-X. Usher, Abbott Payson (1988). A history of mechanical inventions. Courier Dover Publications. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-486-25593-4. Landes, David S. (1983). Revolution in Time. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-76802-4. Willsberger, Johann (1975). Clocks & watches. New York: Dial Press. ISBN 978-0-8037-4475-2. full page color photo: 4th caption page, 3rd photo thereafter (neither pages nor photos are numbered). Lance Day; Ian McNeil, eds. (1996). Biographical dictionary of the history of technology. Routledge (Routledge Reference). p. 116. ISBN 978-0-415-06042-4. Table clock c. 1650 attributed to Hans Buschmann that uses technical inventions by Jost Bürgi, The British Museum, retrieved April 11, 2010 Macey, Samuel L. (ed.): Encyclopedia of Time. (NYC: Garland Publishing, 1994, ISBN 0-8153-0615-6); in Clocks and Watches: The Leap to Precision by William J.H. Andrewes, pp. 123–127 "History of Clocks". "The History of Mechanical Pendulum Clocks and Quartz Clocks". 2012. Retrieved June 16, 2012. "History Of Clocks". Horological Journal, September 2011, pp. 408–412. John S. Rigden (2003). Hydrogen: The Essential Element. Harvard University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-674-01252-3. Gould, Rupert T. (1923). The Marine Chronometer. Its History and Development. London: J.D. Potter. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-907462-05-7. Glasmeier, Amy (2000). Manufacturing Time: Global Competition in the Watch Industry, 1795–2000. Guilford Press. ISBN 978-1-57230-589-2. Retrieved February 7, 2013. "Eli Terry Mass-Produced Box Clock." Smithsonian The National Museum of American History. Web. 21 Sep. 2015. Roe, Joseph Wickham (1916), English and American Tool Builders, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press, LCCN 16011753. Reprinted by McGraw-Hill, New York and London, 1926 (LCCN 27-24075); and by Lindsay Publications, Inc., Bradley, Illinois, (ISBN 978-0-917914-73-7). Thomson, Ross (2009). Structures of Change in the Mechanical Age: Technological Invention in the United States 1790–1865. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-8018-9141-0. Ronalds, B.F. (2016). Sir Francis Ronalds: Father of the Electric Telegraph. London: Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-78326-917-4. "A Revolution in Timekeeping". NIST. Archived from the original on April 9, 2008. Retrieved April 30, 2008. "Pierre Curie". American Institute of Physics. Retrieved April 8, 2008. Marrison, W.A.; Horton, J.W. (February 1928). "Precision determination of frequency". I.R.E. Proc. 16 (2): 137–154. doi:10.1109/JRPROC.1928.221372. S2CID 51664900. Sullivan, D.B. (2001). "Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years" (PDF). Time and Frequency Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011. "Electronic Quartz Wristwatch, 1969". IEEE History Center. Retrieved July 11, 2015. Dick, Stephen (2002). Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory, 1830–2000. Cambridge University Press. p. 484. ISBN 978-0-521-81599-4. Ost, Laura (August 22, 2013). "NIST Ytterbium Atomic Clocks Set Record for Stability". NIST. Retrieved June 30, 2016. Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and Peter Guthrie Tait, Treatise on Natural Philosophy, 2nd ed. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1879), vol. 1, part 1, p. 227. M.A. Lombardi; T.P. Heavner; S.R. Jefferts (2007). "NIST Primary Frequency Standards and the Realization of the SI Second" (PDF). Journal of Measurement Science. 2 (4): 74. Sullivan, D.B. (2001). Time and frequency measurement at NIST: The first 100 years (PDF). 2001 IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium. NIST. pp. 4–17. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2011. "Time and Frequency Division". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on April 15, 2008. Retrieved April 1, 2008. "The "Atomic Age" of Time Standards". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original on April 12, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2008. Essen, L.; Parry, J.V.L. (1955). "An Atomic Standard of Frequency and Time Interval: A Cæsium Resonator". Nature. 176 (4476): 280. Bibcode:1955Natur.176..280E. doi:10.1038/176280a0. S2CID 4191481. W. Markowitz; R.G. Hall; L. Essen; J.V.L. Parry (1958). "Frequency of cesium in terms of ephemeris time". Physical Review Letters. 1 (3): 105–107. Bibcode:1958PhRvL...1..105M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.1.105. Ost, Laura (August 22, 2013). "NIST Ytterbium Atomic Clocks Set Record for Stability". NIST. Retrieved June 30, 2016. Marrison, Warren A. (July 1948). "The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock". Bell System Tech. J. 27 (3): 511–515. doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1948.tb01343.x. Retrieved February 25, 2017. Jespersen, James; Fitz-Randolph, Jane; Robb, John (1999). From Sundials to Atomic Clocks: Understanding Time and Frequency. New York: Courier Dover. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-486-40913-9. "How clocks work". InDepthInfo. W. J. Rayment. 2007. Retrieved June 4, 2008. Milham, Willis I. (1945). Time and Timekeepers. New York: MacMillan. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-7808-0008-3. Milham, 1945, p. 85 "Quality factor, Q". Glossary. Time and Frequency Division, NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). 2008. Archived from the original on May 4, 2008. Retrieved June 4, 2008. Jespersen, James; Fitz-Randolph, Jane (January 1999). Jespersen 1999, pp. 47–50. ISBN 9780486409139. Riehle, Fritz (2004). Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications. Frequency Standards: Basics and Applications. Germany: Wiley VCH Verlag & Co. p. 9. ISBN 978-3-527-40230-4. Milham, 1945, pp. 325–328 Jespersen, James; Fitz-Randolph, Jane (January 1999). Jespersen 1999, pp. 52–62. ISBN 9780486409139. Milham, 1945, p. 113 U.S. Patent 7,079,452, U.S. Patent 7,221,624 Brown, Ju (2006). China, Japan, Korea Culture and Customs. p. 57. Seligman, Scott D. (1999). Chinese business etiquette:: a guide to protocol, manners, and culture in the People's Republic of China. Hachette Digital, Inc. Archived January 5, 2018, at the Wayback Machine 别人过节喜庆的时候,不送钟表。送终和送钟谐音。 BBC Staff (January 26, 2015). "UK minister apologises for Taiwan watch gaffe". BBC News. Retrieved January 29, 2018. Bibliography Baillie, G.H., O. Clutton, & C.A. Ilbert. Britten's Old Clocks and Watches and Their Makers (7th ed.). Bonanza Books (1956). Bolter, David J. Turing's Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC (1984). ISBN 0-8078-4108-0 pbk. Summary of the role of "the clock" in its setting the direction of philosophic movement for the "Western World". Cf. picture on p. 25 showing the verge and foliot. Bolton derived the picture from Macey, p. 20. Bruton, Eric (1982). The History of Clocks and Watches. New York: Crescent Books Distributed by Crown. ISBN 978-0-517-37744-4. Dohrn-van Rossum, Gerhard (1996). History of the Hour: Clocks and Modern Temporal Orders. Trans. Thomas Dunlap. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-15510-4. Edey, Winthrop. French Clocks. New York: Walker & Co. (1967). Kak, Subhash, Babylonian and Indian Astronomy: Early Connections. 2003. Kumar, Narendra "Science in Ancient India" (2004). ISBN 81-261-2056-8. Landes, David S. Revolution in Time: Clocks and the Making of the Modern World. Cambridge: Harvard University Press (1983). Landes, David S. Clocks & the Wealth of Nations, Daedalus Journal, Spring 2003. Lloyd, Alan H. "Mechanical Timekeepers", A History of Technology, Vol. III. Edited by Charles Joseph Singer et al. Oxford: Clarendon Press (1957), pp. 648–675. Macey, Samuel L., Clocks and the Cosmos: Time in Western Life and Thought, Archon Books, Hamden, Conn. (1980). Needham, Joseph (2000) [1965]. Science & Civilisation in China, Vol. 4, Part 2: Mechanical Engineering. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-05803-2. North, John. God's Clockmaker: Richard of Wallingford and the Invention of Time. London: Hambledon and London (2005). Palmer, Brooks. The Book of American Clocks, The Macmillan Co. (1979). Robinson, Tom. The Longcase Clock. Suffolk, England: Antique Collector's Club (1981). Smith, Alan. The International Dictionary of Clocks. London: Chancellor Press (1996). Tardy. French Clocks the World Over. Part I and II. Translated with the assistance of Alexander Ballantyne. Paris: Tardy (1981). Yoder, Joella Gerstmeyer. Unrolling Time: Christiaan Huygens and the Mathematization of Nature. New York: Cambridge University Press (1988). Zea, Philip, & Robert Cheney. Clock Making in New England: 1725–1825. Old Sturbridge Village (1992). External links Listen to this article (45 minutes) MENU0:00 Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 16 July 2019, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Media related to Clocks at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of clock at Wiktionary National Association of Watch & Clock Collectors Museum Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article "Clock". Wikimedia Commons has media related to Clocks. vte Time Key concepts PastPresentFutureEternity Wooden hourglass 3.jpg Measurement and standards Chronometry UTCUTTAIUnit of timeOrders of magnitude (time) Measurement systems Italian six-hour clockThai six-hour clockHindu12-hour clock24-hour clockRelative hourDaylight saving timeDecimalHexadecimalMetricSiderealSolarTime zone Calendars Main types SolarLunarLunisolarGregorianJulianHebrewIslamicSolar HijriChineseHindu PanchangMayaList Clocks Main types astronomical astrariumatomic quantumhourglassmarinesundialwatch mechanicalstopwatchwater-basedCuckoo clockDigital clockGrandfather clockHistory Timeline ChronologyHistory Astronomical chronologyBig HistoryCalendar eraDeep timePeriodizationRegnal yearTimeline Philosophy of time A series and B seriesB-theory of timeChronocentrismDurationEndurantismEternal returnEternalismEventPerdurantismPresentismStatic interpretation of timeTemporal finitismTemporal partsThe Unreality of Time ReligionMythology Ages of ManDestinyImmortalityDreamtimeKālaTime and fate deities Father TimeWheel of time Kālacakra Human experience and use of time ChronemicsGeneration timeMental chronometryMusic tempotime signatureRosy retrospectionTense–aspect–moodTime disciplineTime managementYesterday – Today – Tomorrow Time in science Geology Geological time agechroneonepocheraperiodGeochronologyGeological history of Earth Physics Absolute space and timeArrow of timeChrononCoordinate timeProper timeSpacetimeTheory of relativityTime domainTime translation symmetryTime reversal symmetry Other fields Chronological datingChronobiology Circadian rhythmsClock reactionGlottochronologyTime geography Related topics MemorySpaceSystem timeTempus fugitTime capsuleTime immemorialTime travel Category Commons vte Time measurement and standards ChronometryOrders of magnitudeMetrology International standards Coordinated Universal Time offsetUTΔTDUT1International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems ServiceISO 31-1ISO 8601International Atomic Time12-hour clock24-hour clockBarycentric Coordinate TimeBarycentric Dynamical TimeCivil timeDaylight saving timeGeocentric Coordinate TimeInternational Date LineIERS Reference MeridianLeap secondSolar timeTerrestrial TimeTime zone180th meridian template illustration Obsolete standards Ephemeris timeGreenwich Mean TimePrime meridian Time in physics Absolute space and timeSpacetimeChrononContinuous signalCoordinate timeCosmological decadeDiscrete time and continuous timeProper timeTheory of relativityTime dilationGravitational time dilationTime domainTime translation symmetryT-symmetry Horology ClockAstrariumAtomic clockComplicationHistory of timekeeping devicesHourglassMarine chronometerMarine sandglassRadio clockWatch stopwatchWater clockSundialDialing scalesEquation of timeHistory of sundialsSundial markup schema Calendar GregorianHebrewHinduHoloceneIslamic (lunar Hijri)JulianSolar HijriAstronomicalDominical letterEpactEquinoxIntercalationJulian dateLeap yearLunarLunisolarSolarSolsticeTropical yearWeekday determinationWeekday names Archaeology and geology Chronological datingGeologic time scaleInternational Commission on Stratigraphy Astronomical chronology Galactic yearNuclear timescalePrecessionSidereal time Other units of time FlickShakeJiffySecondMinuteMomentHourDayWeekFortnightMonthYearOlympiadLustrumDecadeCenturySaeculumMillennium Related topics ChronologyDuration musicMental chronometryDecimal timeMetric timeSystem timeTime metrologyTime value of moneyTimekeeper Authority control: National libraries Edit this at Wikidata France (data)GermanyIsraelUnited StatesJapanCzech Republic Categories: ClocksTime measurement systems What Is Steampunk? Your Journey Starts Here! Futuristic, yet retro at the same time, Steampunk is truly one-of-a-kind. The genre blends the aesthetic and technology of the 19th century with elements of science fiction. Its literary and audiovisual works take place in an alternate reality where technological progress is based not on electricity, but on the steam engine. Steampunk, a World of Steam Steam is a central element of steampunk. The technology featured in this universe is generally just as advanced as that of our modern world, but it uses steam as its energy source instead of electricity, gas or oil. As a result, steampunk technology takes on a retro look reminiscent of the Industrial Revolution era. As Douglas Fetherling so aptly put it, “Steampunk is a genre that imagines how different the past might have been had the future come earlier.” Steampunk AvenueTechnologie Steampunk Follow On In short, steampunk features modern technology with a retro look. The steampunk aesthetic is inspired by the fashions of Victorian Era in England (1837-1901), but also by the Belle Epoque in France (1871-1914) and the Civil War era in the United States (1861-1865). The clothing from these eras is often modernized by the addition of mechanical elements with gears showing. Steampunk AvenueStyle Steampunk Follow On The rules of steampunk fashion: For men, long coats and top hats are de rigueur. For women, corsets and steampunk goggles are recurring elements. Wearing a steampunk watch is great for both genders. And the Punk in All This? To explain how “punk” fits into steampunk, we’ll need to go back to the origins of the genre. The term “steampunk” first appeared in 1987, in a letter sent to Locus Magazine by American writer Kevin Jeter. The author jokingly used the word steampunk to describe the Victorian fiction he was writing with his acolytes Tim Powers and James Blaylock. The term “punk” was basically a parodic reference to “cyberpunk,” because the libertarian ideology of punk is much less pronounced in steampunk than in cyberpunk. Today steampunk has grown from a simple joke into a genre in its own right, present in every cultural medium (film, TV shows, video games, etc.). For some, it has also become a way of life. In fact, steampunk enthusiasts are known as Steamers. The General Public Knows What Steampunk Is Without Realizing It The term “steampunk” is still fairly obscure. However, the genre and its aesthetic have become familiar to the general public through various works. First of all, some of the illustrious Jules Verne’s novels could almost be placed in the steampunk category. As a matter of fact, in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, the Nautilus is a futuristic submarine developed in a classical era (1867-1868). But since this classic of French literature was written in the 19th century, it is classified as a science fiction novel instead. The Nautilus, an sci fi submarine The Nautilus, the futuristic submersible imagined by Jules Verne, was more advanced than all other submarines at that time. We could also mention The Wild Wild West. In the famous TV series, and its film adaptation, two secret agents travel the Far West in the 1870s using anachronistic inventions to fight their enemies. The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen - A science-fiction universe with steam technology, steampunk weapons and victorian fashion.Alan Moore’s comic book series The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (which has been adapted by Hollywood) is another good example of the steampunk genre. The story takes place in an imaginary Victorian age and it features characters from the popular literature of the late 19th century (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, Captain Nemo, the Invisible Man etc.), bringing them together in an elite unit to protect Victorian England from fantastic futuristic threats. The Sherlock Holmes movies are another of the most well-known steampunk works. The movies follow the adventures of the famous detective in an alternate British Empire packed with mysticism and retrofuturistic gadgets. Steampunk has also appeared multiple times in video games. BioShock Infinite (2013), for example, represents the genre perfectly. The game’s story takes place in 1912, in a floating, anachronistic city. Steampunk outfits, airship, dirigible, automaton, steam powered machinery… you name it, it’s all there! With its flawless execution and engrossing storyline, BioShock Infinite leaves a lasting impression. It’s not only one of the best steampunk games, but also one of the best video games in general. The history of the wristwatch: 200 years of development The beginning: From the pocket watch to the wristwatch Nothing has shaped our present understanding of time as much as the invention of the wristwatch. In everyday life, people wear it out of normality. In reality, wristwatches are two centuries old and have made a lot of development since its introduction. The need to measure time has existed for several millennia: 5,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians invented the sundial. Its circular design and time periods have helped shape the appearance of modern watches. Reading the time was dependant on sunlight and therefore only possible during the day. The first watch that was not dependant on sunlight was the water clock. It was followed by the hourglass and the the wheel clock in the 14th century. The latter already contained the first basic elements that can currently be found in mechanical watches, but was very inaccurate. It was equipped with a so called “Unrast” – a less accurate predecessor of the balance wheel. Arsa pocket watch on wood Watches were back then relatively large and where therefore often kept on a chain in the back pocket. Chain watches, however, were far from their arrival to the general population. Watches were adorned and expensive luxury items. Since the 13th century, large clocks were visible to the ordinary population in church towers and marketplaces, providing acoustic information on the full hour or the beginning of a fair. Clocks were initially made by locksmiths, but the watchmaking profession was beginning to evolve due to an increasing need. In the 15th century, balance and, above all, the spiral spring were created, which made the construction of precise watches possible. The coil spring replaced the long pendulum that was used in the past and thus created the foundations for a miniaturisation of the watches. In 1673 Christiaan Huygens created a watch with spiral spring and balance, which was already relatively small and portable. The way was paved for the development of smaller watches: Only a few decades later in 1812, Abraham-Louis Breguet made the first known wristwatch for Queen Caroline Murat, Napoleon’s sister. It was attached to the wrist with a strap. By then, men carried their timepieces on a chain attached to their back pocket. Women wore it around their necks, a trend that lasted for almost a century. The wristwatch slowly found its way into social life, and at the end of the 19th century, it had a firm place in women’s wardrobes. Such watches were attached to ribbons or chains, giving them a feminine touch and making them look like jewels. Vintage Rolex Uhr aus den 1930er Jahren auf einer Holzscheibe The development of the wristwatch in the 20th century Men still preferred pocket watches, which had also become smaller over the years and their accuracy had improved dramatically. But it soon became apparent that the elegant gesture of taking a watch out of the pocket was not practical in every situation. Flying legend Alberto Santos Dumont already expressed his wish to be able to use both hands while flying and to be able to keep an eye on his watch at the same time. His friend Louis Cartier therefore designed the Cartier Santos for him in 1904, which is still a central series of the collection of the company today. The first mens wristwatch was born and with it, the first pilot watch. Even if it doesn’t have much in common with today’s aviation watches with a distinctive bezel, it laid the foundation for one of the most successful watch categories of all time. Today almost every watch manufacturer has at least one aviation series in its repertoire. Thanks to their enormous recognition value, they are still very popular. With the outbreak of the First World War their use was extended to many areas in which free hands were vital. Even today you can see that many series derive their origin from professional and military circ*mstances. Series like the Breitling Navitimer are equipped with additional navigation features that assist pilots: The rotating slide rule bezel for example, enabled precise aviation calculations directly from the watch and without having to employ additional tools. Today, on-board computers have replaced this function. The traditional history is still reflected in the design of the watch, the slide rule bezel gives it a striking look. Other series like the Rolex Air-King are based on minimalist design and readability in low light conditions. Although many series were designed for professional use, they did not remain reserved for military use and quickly became admired amongst the civilian population. But the era of the pocket watch was not over yet: for a long time there was a coexistence of pocket watch and wristwatch. But the rapid development of the wristwatch caused a growing popularity. It was initially worn mainly by soldiers and pilots who used the timepieces in the First World War. At the beginning, pocket watches were used, and were equipped with a chain. As time progressed, the market for wrist watches formed rapidly. The requirements of the war affected their features: Luminous hands for better readability, shockproof housings and scratch-resistant glasses are still important features today. Rolex 30th In the 1920s, the first automatic, self-winding watch was developed. In 1926, Rolex made headlines when they introduced their waterproof Oyster case, which significantly contributed to their advertising campaign thanks to the success of wristwatches. To prove the waterproofness of the Oyster case, founder Hans Wilsdorf equipped swimmer Mercedes Gleitze with a Rolex as she tried to cross the English Channel. The record attempt failed because of unfavourable weather conditions. The watch survived its time in icy water without any damage. The success of the wristwatch was unstoppable. In 1931 Rolex launched the first self-winding movement, the Oyster Perpetual, replaced the hand-wound movement. The quartz crisis and its consequences for the watch industry In the 1930s, the first electric powered watches with quartz technology had been developed. They were expensive, bulky and only produced in small numbers for scientific use. The initial models relied either on a constant electric power supply or their batteries were so large that they were not suitable for transport. The breakthrough came with the semiconductor technology, which allowed manufacturers to produce watch movements in miniaturised form. Seiko, Patek Philippe and Junghans introduced their first battery-powered table clocks. They were still more expensive than mechanical watches and therefore did not represent any serious competition. The development of integrated circuits for divider stages was changing this progressively. In the 1970s, the watch market expanded by a variety of electric powered wristwatches, especially from Japan. They significantly exceeded their mechanical counterparts in terms of accuracy and affordability. The Seiko Astron was the first electric wristwatch in 1969 that was for sale in stores. They were still very expensive, but prices fell rapidly. The movements of the quartz watches consisted of fewer parts, were therefore less expensive in production and could be produced in large quantities. A variety of models of inexpensive wristwatches flooded the market and plunged old-established producers of mechanical watches into a crisis. Watchmakers worldwide struggled with the consequences. Smaller manufacturers disappeared completely from the industry, but also medium and large companies had to file for bankruptcy. Only some of them could be saved. In Switzerland, in 1970 only 600 of the 1600 companies remained in business. Even traditional brands like Rolex struggled because of the quartz boom, so the Rolex Oyster Quartz was introduced. The first and only Rolex watch with a quartz movement to date. The merger of ASUAG (General Swiss Watch Industry AG) and SSIH (Société Suisse de l’Industrie Horlogère) helped to revive the watchmaking nation. The newly created Swatch company invented a competitive electric wristwatch that, thanks to fewer components, was cheap to produce and helped the local watch industry back into stability. A.Lange-Söhne 116.021 The market recovered in the late 1980s. Mechanical watches became popular again, especially in the upper price segment, thanks to their easier-to-understand functionality and the craftsmanship required for their production. „Swiss made“ regained relevance as a quality criteria and dominated the watch market. Although the crisis has driven some companies into bankruptcy, it has also caused some positive results: New manufacturing processes developed and companies restructured, focusing on their particularly strong series. The watch industry changed direction, with the Swiss watch industry no longer only covering the upper price segment, but focusing equally on cheaper timepieces with quartz technology, which were able to keep up with the Asian competition. At the same time, mechanical watches are more popular than ever. Made in Swiss stands for accuracy, craftsmanship and high-quality production. One is not forced to spend half a fortune on a high-quality wristwatch. Nevertheless, luxury watches are still a promising investment. They also have a different emotional value compared to short-lived, cheap electronic counterparts. Thanks to the use of exclusive materials and high-quality workmanship, some luxury watches endure several generations and with appropriate treatment, steadily increase in value. Nowadays, there is an impressive variety of wristwatches in every price segment. If you want to treat yourself with high quality at a lower price, you can rely on certified, used luxury watches bought from Watchmaster. From cheap digital watches to the still very popular and technically complex mechanical watch and the state-of-the-art smartwatch, there is something for every taste. The Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms. It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days," held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued throughout the month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country British twenty-five pence coin United Kingdom Value 25.0 pence sterling Mass 28.28 g Diameter 38.61 mm Thickness 2.5 mm Edge milled Composition 75% Cu, 25% Ni Years of minting 1971–1981 Catalog number - Obverse Design Queen Elizabeth II Designer Arnold Machin Design date 1963 Reverse Design Lady Diana Spencer and Charles, Prince of Wales Designer Philip Nathan Design date 1981 The commemorative British decimal twenty-five pence (25p) coin was issued in four designs between 1972 and 1981. These coins were a post-decimalisation continuation of the traditional crown, with the same value of a quarter of a pound sterling. Uniquely in British decimal coinage, the coins do not have their value stated on them. This is because previous crowns rarely did so. The coins were issued for commemorative purposes and were not intended for circulation, although they remain legal tender and must be accepted at Post Offices.[1] The coins weigh 28.28 g (0.9092 oz troy) and have a diameter of 38.61 mm. Twenty-five pence coin issues were discontinued after 1981 due to the prohibitive cost to the Royal Mint of producing such large coins with such small value. From 1990 the "crown" was revived as the commemorative five pound coin, having the same dimensions and weight but a value twenty times as great. Designs The following 25p coins were produced: 1972 issue 1972: To celebrate the Silver wedding anniversary of HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: The initials EP crowned and with a floral garland, with a naked figure of Eros at the centre. The inscription reads: ELIZABETH AND PHILIP 20 NOVEMBER 1947 - 1972. This face was also designed by Arnold Machin. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 7,452,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 100,000 silver coins issued. 1977 issue 1977: To celebrate HM The Queen's Silver Jubilee of reign. Obverse: A portrait of Queen Elizabeth II riding a horse, in a similar style to the 1953 crown celebrating her coronation. The inscription reads ELIZABETH·II DG·REG FD 1977. Reverse: A design showing coronation regalia. The Ampulla and Anointing Spoon used in the Queen's coronation are displayed crowned, and encircled by a floral border. These objects date from the 14th and 12th centuries respectively and have remained in continuous use. Both faces were designed by Arnold Machin. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 36,989,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 377,000 silver coins issued. 1980 issue 1980: To celebrate the eightieth birthday of HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: A portrait of the Queen Mother surrounded by a radiating pattern of bows and lions, a pun on her maiden name Bowes-Lyon. The inscription reads: QUEEN ELIZABETH THE QUEEN MOTHER AUGUST 4th 1980. The reverse was designed by Professor Richard Guyatt. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 9,478,000 cupronickel coins [2] and 83,672 silver coins issued. 1981 issue 1981: To celebrate the wedding of HRH The Prince of Wales and Lady Diana Spencer. Obverse: The standard portrait of Queen Elizabeth II by Arnold Machin with the inscription D·G·REG·F·D· ELIZABETH II. Reverse: A profile portrait of Lady Diana Spencer partially covered by a profile portrait of HRH The Prince of Wales, both facing to the left, with the inscription H.R.H. THE PRINCE OF WALES AND LADY DIANA SPENCER 1981. This face was designed by Philip Nathan. Both faces are encircled by dots. The edge of the coin is milled. There were 26,773,600 cupronickel coins [2] and 17,000 silver coins issued. List of events during the Silver Jubilee of Elizabeth II Elizabeth II speaking to disabled women during her visit to Grimsby in July 1977. The Queen is pictured here with the town's mayor.[1] The Silver Jubilee of Queen Elizabeth II marked the 25th anniversary of Queen Elizabeth II's accession to the thrones of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms.[a] It was celebrated with large-scale parties and parades throughout the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth throughout 1977, culminating in June with the official "Jubilee Days", held to coincide with the Queen's Official Birthday. The anniversary date itself was commemorated in church services across the land on 6 February 1977, and continued throughout the month. In March, preparations started for large parties in every major city of the United Kingdom, as well as for smaller ones for countless individual streets throughout the country. The Queen had the following engagements during her Silver Jubilee: February 10 February – Royal Visit to American Samoa 11 February – Royal Visit to Western Samoa 14 February – Royal Visit to Tonga 16–17 February – Royal Visit to Fiji 22 February – 7 March – Royal Visit to New Zealand including 26 February – Visit to the Maori Festival at Gisborne 28 February – State Opening of Parliament, Wellington March 1 March – Visit to Queen Carnival 2 March. Visit Mosgiel (NZ) and Royal NZ Aero Club Air Show. 7–30 March – Royal Visit to Australia, including 8 March – State Opening of Parliament, Canberra 11 March – Royal Visit to Launceston, Tasmania and Newcastle, New South Wales 14 March – Royal Visit to Sydney 21 March – Royal Visit to Nuriootpa, South Australia 30 March – Royal Visit to Perth 23–25 March – Royal Visit to Papua New Guinea 30 March – Royal Visit to Bombay 31 March – Royal Visit to Muscat, Oman April 11 April – Launch of London Transport's Silver Jubilee buses. May 3 May – Launch of HMS Invincible by Queen Elizabeth II at Barrow-in-Furness 4 May – The Queen receives addresses from the House of Commons and the House of Lords 6 May – Royal Review of the Police, Hendon 7 May – Royal Review of Rolls Royces, Windsor Castle 10 May – Royal reception for delegates to the NATO Ministerial Council Meeting 11 May – Issue of the British Silver Jubilee stamps 13 May – Biggin Hill Air Fair 14–15 May – Historic Aircraft Display, White Waltham 15 May – The Queen receives the horse "Centennial" from the Commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police 16 May – Royal visit to the Royal Horticultural Society's Chelsea Show 17 May – Royal Visit to Glasgow (including football match, the Glasgow FA Select v the Football League XI, Hampden Park)[2] 18 May – Royal Visit to Cumbernauld and Stirling 19 May – Royal Visit to Perth and Dundee 20 May – Royal Visit to Aberdeen 23 May – Royal Visit to Edinburgh 27 May – British Genius Exhibition, Battersea Park (until 30 October) 28 May – Royal Visit to Windsor 30 May – The Queen attends gala performance of opera and ballet, Royal Opera House, Covent Garden June 6 June – lighting of bonfire chain, Windsor 7 June – Silver Jubilee Bank Holiday 8 June – Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 1977, Lancaster House 9 June – Royal Visit to Greenwich and River Progress 11 June – Trooping of the Colour 12 June – Royal salute at march past of Royal British Legion Standards 13 June – Garter Service, Windsor Castle 16 June – Silver Jubilee Test match, Lord's Cricket Ground (Australia v England) 20 June – Royal Visit to Lancaster, Preston, Leigh, Stretford, and Manchester 21 June – Royal Visit to St. Helens, Liverpool and Bootle Stockport 22 June – Royal Visit to Harlech Castle, Blaenau Ffestiniog, Llandudno, Conwy, Bangor and Holyhead 23 June – Royal Visit to Milford Haven, Haverfordwest, Carmarthen, Llanelli, Swansea, Neath and Barry 24 June – Royal Visit to Cardiff and Risca 28 June – Royal Review of the Royal Navy, Spithead 29 June – Royal Visit to Portsmouth 30 June – Royal Visit to South London and Royal Review of Reserve & Cadet Forces Wembley Stadium July 1 July – Royal Visit to Wimbledon 4 July – Guildford Silver Jubilee Pageant (attended by Princess Anne on 6 July) (until 16 July) 6 July – Royal Visit to North London 7 July – Royal Review of the British Army of the Rhine, Germany 10 July – Silver Jubilee Powerboat Race, from HMS Belfast to Calais 11 July – Royal Visit to Norwich, Ipswich and Felixstowe 12 July – Royal Visit to Grimsby, Doncaster, Sheffield, Barnsley and Leeds 13 July – Royal Visit to Wakefield, Harrogate, Beverley, York and Hull 14 July – Royal Visit to Middlesbrough, Hartlepool (including naming of RNLB The Scout), Eston and Durham 15 July – Royal Visit to Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Sunderland 19 July – Royal Visit to Royal Tournament, Earl's Court 27 July – Royal Visit to Wolverhampton, Dudley, West Bromwich, Walsall, Birmingham, Hampton-in-Arden, Solihull and Coventry 28 July – Royal Visit to Leicester, Chesterfield, Mansfield, Derby and Nottingham 29 July – Royal Review of the Royal Air Force, RAF Finningley August 3 August – Colchester Searchlight Tattoo 4 August – Cardiff Silver Jubilee Tattoo 4 August – Royal Visit to Southampton 5 August – Royal Visit to Torbay, Exeter and Plymouth (including Royal Review of the Royal Marines) 6 August – Royal Visit to Falmouth, Truro, Bodmin and St. Austell 7 August – Royal Visit to Lundy (a private visit as "time off" from the official tour)[3] 8 August – Royal Visit to Bristol, Northavon, Bath, Keynsham and Weston-super-Mare 10 August – Royal Visit to Belfast 11 August – Royal Visit to Derry 13 August – Open Day, RAF Lossiemouth 18 August – Edinburgh Military Tattoo, Edinburgh Castle 20 August – Greenwich Jubilee Clipper Week Regetta 27–29 August – Plymouth Navy Days September 10 September – Lions v Barbarians Rugby Match, Twickenham 15–17 September – Ryder Cup, Royal Lytham & St Annes Golf Club October 14–19 October – Royal Visit to Canada including 18 October – State Opening of Parliament, Ottawa 19–20 October – Royal Visit to the Bahamas 20 October – Royal Visit to the British Virgin Islands 28 October – Royal Visit to Antigua and Barbuda 30 October – Royal Visit to Mustique 31 October – Royal Visit to Barbados November 22 November – Leeds United v Ajax football match, Leeds 28 November – Hong Kong Silver Jubilee Pageant December 16 December – Royal opening of Piccadilly line extension to Heathrow Central 25 December – Royal Christmas Message is broadcast to the Commonwealth[4][5] Notes At the time, the realms were Australia, the Bahamas, Barbados, Canada, Fiji, Grenada, Jamaica, Mauritius, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the United Kingdom. Three of these countries - Barbados, Fiji and Mauritius - have since become republics, but a further seven countries have become Commonwealth realms since 1977. References East Riding of Yorkshire Archive Service (21 April 2016). "Walkabout by Her Majesty The Queen, Town Hall Square, Grimsby 12th July 1977". Flickr. Beverley: East Riding of Yorkshire Council. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018. Councillor P Willing, Mayor of Grimsby, is by Her Majesty's side. The day Queen Elizabeth united Celtic and Rangers, BBC News, 14 September 2022 "Queen Picks Lundy for a Few Hours Off Duty". 12 August 1977. Retrieved 13 December 2020. "Christmas Broadcast 1977". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2015. R., Elizabeth (11 November 2015). "Christmas Broadcast 1977". London: The Royal Household. Archived from the original on 14 November 2018. Retrieved 14 November 2018. vte Elizabeth II Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms (1952–2022) Monarchies Antigua and BarbudaAustraliaBahamasBarbadosBelizeCanadaCeylonFijiGambiaGhanaGrenadaGuyanaJamaicaKenyaMalawiMaltaMauritiusNew ZealandNigeriaPakistanPapua New GuineaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSierra LeoneSolomon IslandsSouth AfricaTanganyikaTrinidad and TobagoTuvaluUgandaUnited Kingdom Family Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (husband) weddingwedding dresswedding cakeCharles III (son) Investiture of Charles, Prince of WalesAnne, Princess Royal (daughter)Prince Andrew, Duke of York (son)Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar (son)George VI (father)Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother (mother)Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon (sister)Mountbatten-Windsor family Accession and coronation Proclamation of accessionCoronation Royal guestsParticipants in the processionCoronation chickenCoronation gownMedalHonoursAwardThe Queen's BeastsTreetops HotelMacCormick v Lord Advocate Reign Annus horribilisHouseholdPersonality and imagePrime ministersPillar Box WarRhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence Queen of RhodesiaChristopher John Lewis incidentLithgow PlotMarcus Sarjeant incident1975 Australian constitutional crisis Palace lettersMichael fa*gan incident1987 Fijian coups d'étatDeath of Diana, Princess of Wales1999 Australian republic referendumPerth AgreementState Opening of Parliament 20212022Operation London BridgeDeath and state funeral reactionsqueuedignitaries at the funeral Jubilees Silver Jubilee EventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee Walkway Ruby Jubilee Queen's Anniversary Prize Golden Jubilee Prom at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursThe Odyssey Diamond Jubilee PageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonours Platinum Jubilee MedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through HistoryTrooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingPlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyPlatinum Jubilee Civic HonoursThe Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee Read Commonwealth tours Antigua and BarbudaAustralia official openingsCanadaJamaicaNew ZealandSaint Lucia Ships used HMS Vanguard (23)SS Gothic (1947)HMY Britannia State visits Outgoing State visit to SpainState visit to RussiaState visit to Ireland Incoming Pope Benedict XVIPresident Michael D. HigginsPresident Xi Jinping Titles and honours Head of the CommonwealthDefender of the FaithSupreme Governor of the Church of EnglandHead of the British Armed ForcesCommander-in-Chief of the Canadian Armed ForcesLord of MannList of things named after Elizabeth IIRoyal Family OrderElizabeth CrossQueen's Official BirthdayFlags Depictions Televised addresses Royal address to the nationRoyal Christmas Message Documentaries Royal Journey (1951)A Queen Is Crowned (1953)The Queen in Australia (1954)The Royal Tour of the Caribbean (1966)Royal Family (1969)Elizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the Queen (1992)Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007)The Diamond Queen (2012)Elizabeth at 90: A Family Tribute (2016)The Coronation (2018)Elizabeth: The Unseen Queen (2022) Film and television A Question of Attribution (1992 TV)Willi und die Windzors (1996)Her Majesty (2001)The Queen (2006)The Queen (2009 TV serial)Happy and Glorious (2012)A Royal Night Out (2015)Minions (2015)The Crown (2016–)The Queen's Corgi (2019)2020 Alternative Christmas message (2020)The Prince (2021) Plays A Question of Attribution (1988)The Audience (2013)Handbagged Portraits Conversation Piece at the Royal Lodge, WindsorWattle QueenPietro Annigoni's portraitsReigning QueensHer Majesty Queen Elizabeth II – An 80th Birthday PortraitThe QueenThe Coronation Theatre: Portrait of HM Queen Elizabeth IIBeautiful Portrait, The QueenQueen Elizabeth IIAlgorithm Queen Statues WindsorWinnipegLagosYork Minster Books The Queen and IThe Little PrincessesThe Uncommon ReaderWinnie-the-Pooh Meets the QueenQueen Camilla Songs "God Save the Queen" (Sex Pistols song)"Her Majesty" Stamps Machin series (list)Wilding seriesCastle seriesCanadian domestic rate stampCountry definitives Animals Corgis DookieSusan Horses AureoleBurmeseCarrozzaDunfermlineEstimateHeight of FashionHighclerePall MallWinston Related Jewels of Elizabeth IIElizabeth lineSagana LodgeVilla GuardamangiaDorgiChildren's Party at the PalaceThe Queen's Birthday PartyJeannette CharlesRosa 'Queen Elizabeth'Queen Elizabeth cake vte Jubilees of British monarchs George III Golden Jubilee (1809) King's StatueJubilee RockJubilee Tower (Moel Famau) Victoria Golden Jubilee (1887) HonoursMedalPolice MedalClock Tower, WeymouthClock Tower, BrightonBustAdelaide Jubilee International ExhibitionJubilee Issue Diamond Jubilee (1897) HonoursMedalJubilee DiamondCherries jubilee"Recessional"Devonshire House BallVictoria and Merrie England George V Silver Jubilee (1935) MedalSilver Jubilee (train)Silver Jubilee Railway Bridge BharuchThe King's StampCanadian silver dollarJubilee (musical)Jubilee chicken Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee (1977) EventsMedalHonoursJubilee GardensJubilee lineJubilee Walkway"God Save the Queen" (Sex Pistols song) Ruby Jubilee (1992) Annus horribilisElizabeth R: A Year in the Life of the QueenQueen's Anniversary Prize Golden Jubilee (2002) Prom at the PalaceParty at the PalaceMedalHonoursJubilee OdysseyGreat British TreesGolden Jubilee chicken Diamond Jubilee (2012) PageantArmed Forces Parade and MusterThames Pageant GlorianaSpirit of ChartwellConcertGibraltar FlotillaMedalHonoursThe Coronation Theatre: Portrait of HM Queen Elizabeth IIDiamond Jubilee chicken Sapphire Jubilee (2017) Sapphire Jubilee Snowflake Brooch Platinum Jubilee (2022) MedalBeaconsPlatinum Party at the PalacePageantPlatinum Jubilee Celebration: A Gallop Through History2022 Trooping the ColourNational Service of ThanksgivingAct of Loyalty ParadePlatinum PuddingThe Queen's Green CanopyCivic HonoursElizabeth: The Unseen QueenStatue of Elizabeth II (York Minster)The Bahamas Platinum Jubilee Sailing RegattaThe Queen's Platinum Jubilee ConcertBig Jubilee ReadAlgorithm Queen"Queenhood" Categories: British monarchy-related lists1977 in the United KingdomElizabeth II-related listsSilver Jubilee of Elizabeth IIRoyal visits Elizabeth II Head of the Commonwealth Formal photograph of Elizabeth facing right Formal photograph, 1958 Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms (list) Reign 6 February 1952 – 8 September 2022 Coronation 2 June 1953 Predecessor George VI Successor Charles III Born Princess Elizabeth of York 21 April 1926 Mayfair, London, England Died 8 September 2022 (aged 96) Balmoral Castle, Aberdeenshire, Scotland Burial 19 September 2022 King George VI Memorial Chapel, St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle Spouse Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (m. 1947; died 2021) Issue Detail Charles III Anne, Princess Royal Prince Andrew, Duke of York Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex and Forfar Names Elizabeth Alexandra Mary House Windsor Father George VI Mother Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon Signature Elizabeth's signature in black ink Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; 21 April 1926 – 8 September 2022) was Queen of the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth realms from 6 February 1952 until her death in 2022. She was queen regnant of 32 sovereign states during her lifetime and 15 at the time of her death. Her reign of 70 years and 214 days was the longest of any British monarch and the longest verified reign of any female monarch in history. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and duch*ess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother). Her father acceded to the throne in 1936 upon the abdication of his brother Edward VIII, making then-Princess Elizabeth the heir presumptive. She was educated privately at home and began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In November 1947, she married Philip Mountbatten, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, and their marriage lasted 73 years until his death in 2021. They had four children: Charles, Anne, Andrew, and Edward. When her father died in February 1952, Elizabeth—then 25 years old—became queen of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon (known today as Sri Lanka), as well as Head of the Commonwealth. Elizabeth reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes such as the Troubles in Northern Ireland, devolution in the United Kingdom, the decolonisation of Africa, and the United Kingdom's accession to the European Communities and withdrawal from the European Union. The number of her realms varied over time as territories gained independence and some realms became republics. As queen, Elizabeth was served by more than 170 prime ministers across her realms. Her many historic visits and meetings included state visits to China in 1986, to Russia in 1994, and to the Republic of Ireland in 2011, and meetings with five popes. Significant events included Elizabeth's coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver, Golden, Diamond, and Platinum jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012, and 2022, respectively. Although she faced occasional republican sentiment and media criticism of her family—particularly after the breakdowns of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992, and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales—support for the monarchy in the United Kingdom remained consistently high throughout her lifetime, as did her personal popularity.[1] Elizabeth died in September 2022 at Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire, at the age of 96, and was succeeded by her eldest child, King Charles III. Her state funeral was the first to be held in the United Kingdom since that of Winston Churchill in 1965. Early life Elizabeth as a thoughtful-looking toddler with curly, fair hair On the cover of Time, April 1929 Elizabeth as a rosy-cheeked young girl with blue eyes and fair hair Portrait by Philip de László, 1933 Princess Elizabeth was born at 02:40 (GMT) on 21 April 1926,[2] during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, duch*ess of York (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Princess Elizabeth was delivered by Caesarean section at 17 Bruton Street in Mayfair, which was her grandfather Lord Strathmore's London home.[3] She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May,[4][a] and named Elizabeth after her mother; Alexandra after her paternal great-grandmother, who had died six months earlier; and Mary after her paternal grandmother.[6] Called "Lilibet" by her close family,[7] based on what she called herself at first,[8] she was cherished by her grandfather George V, whom she affectionately called "Grandpa England",[9] and her regular visits during his serious illness in 1929 were credited in the popular press and by later biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery.[10] Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930. The two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.[11] Lessons concentrated on history, language, literature, and music.[12] Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.[13] The book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, and her attitude of responsibility.[14] Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant."[15] Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved".[16] Heir presumptive During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the British throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young and likely to marry and have children of his own, who would precede Elizabeth in the line of succession.[17] When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second in line to the throne, after her father. Later that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis.[18] Consequently, Elizabeth's father became king, taking the regnal name George VI. Since Elizabeth had no brothers, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had subsequently borne a son, he would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession, which was determined by the male-preference primogeniture in effect at the time.[19] Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College,[20] and learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses.[21] A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed specifically so she could socialise with girls her own age.[22] Later, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger.[21] In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured Canada and the United States. As in 1927, when they had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought she was too young to undertake public tours.[23] She "looked tearful" as her parents departed.[24] They corresponded regularly,[24] and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.[23] Second World War In Auxiliary Territorial Service uniform, April 1945 In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that Princesses Elizabeth and Margaret should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombings of London by the Luftwaffe.[25] This was rejected by their mother, who declared, "The children won't go without me. I won't leave without the King. And the King will never leave."[26] The princesses stayed at Balmoral Castle, Scotland, until Christmas 1939, when they moved to Sandringham House, Norfolk.[27] From February to May 1940, they lived at Royal Lodge, Windsor, until moving to Windsor Castle, where they lived for most of the next five years.[28] At Windsor, the princesses staged pantomimes at Christmas in aid of the Queen's Wool Fund, which bought yarn to knit into military garments.[29] In 1940, the 14-year-old Elizabeth made her first radio broadcast during the BBC's Children's Hour, addressing other children who had been evacuated from the cities.[30] She stated: "We are trying to do all we can to help our gallant sailors, soldiers, and airmen, and we are trying, too, to bear our own share of the danger and sadness of war. We know, every one of us, that in the end all will be well."[30] In 1943, Elizabeth undertook her first solo public appearance on a visit to the Grenadier Guards, of which she had been appointed colonel the previous year.[31] As she approached her 18th birthday, Parliament changed the law so she could act as one of five counsellors of state in the event of her father's incapacity or absence abroad, such as his visit to Italy in July 1944.[32] In February 1945, she was appointed an honorary second subaltern in the Auxiliary Territorial Service with the service number of 230873.[33] She trained and worked as a driver and mechanic and was given the rank of honorary junior commander (female equivalent of captain at the time) five months later.[34] Elizabeth (far left) on the balcony of Buckingham Palace with her family and Winston Churchill, 8 May 1945 At the end of the war in Europe, on Victory in Europe Day, Elizabeth and Margaret mingled incognito with the celebrating crowds in the streets of London. Elizabeth later said in a rare interview, "We asked my parents if we could go out and see for ourselves. I remember we were terrified of being recognised ... I remember lines of unknown people linking arms and walking down Whitehall, all of us just swept along on a tide of happiness and relief."[35] During the war, plans were drawn up to quell Welsh nationalism by affiliating Elizabeth more closely with Wales. Proposals, such as appointing her Constable of Caernarfon Castle or a patron of Urdd Gobaith Cymru (the Welsh League of Youth), were abandoned for several reasons, including fear of associating Elizabeth with conscientious objectors in the Urdd at a time when Britain was at war.[36] Welsh politicians suggested she be made Princess of Wales on her 18th birthday. Home Secretary Herbert Morrison supported the idea, but the King rejected it because he felt such a title belonged solely to the wife of a Prince of Wales and the Prince of Wales had always been the heir apparent.[37] In 1946, she was inducted into the Gorsedd of Bards at the National Eisteddfod of Wales.[38] Princess Elizabeth went on her first overseas tour in 1947, accompanying her parents through southern Africa. During the tour, in a broadcast to the British Commonwealth on her 21st birthday, she made the following pledge: "I declare before you all that my whole life, whether it be long or short, shall be devoted to your service and the service of our great imperial family to which we all belong."[39] The speech was written by Dermot Morrah, a journalist for The Times.[40] Marriage Main article: Wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten Elizabeth met her future husband, Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark, in 1934 and again in 1937.[41] They were second cousins once removed through King Christian IX of Denmark and third cousins through Queen Victoria. After meeting for the third time at the Royal Naval College in Dartmouth in July 1939, Elizabeth—though only 13 years old—said she fell in love with Philip, who was 18, and they began to exchange letters.[42] She was 21 when their engagement was officially announced on 9 July 1947.[43] The engagement attracted some controversy. Philip had no financial standing, was foreign-born (though a British subject who had served in the Royal Navy throughout the Second World War), and had sisters who had married German noblemen with Nazi links.[44] Marion Crawford wrote, "Some of the King's advisors did not think him good enough for her. He was a prince without a home or kingdom. Some of the papers played long and loud tunes on the string of Philip's foreign origin."[45] Later biographies reported that Elizabeth's mother had reservations about the union initially, and teased Philip as "the Hun".[46] In later life, however, she told the biographer Tim Heald that Philip was "an English gentleman".[47] At Buckingham Palace with new husband Philip after their wedding, 1947 Before the marriage, Philip renounced his Greek and Danish titles, officially converted from Greek Orthodoxy to Anglicanism, and adopted the style Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, taking the surname of his mother's British family.[48] Shortly before the wedding, he was created Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style His Royal Highness.[49] Elizabeth and Philip were married on 20 November 1947 at Westminster Abbey. They received 2,500 wedding gifts from around the world.[50] Elizabeth required ration coupons to buy the material for her gown (which was designed by Norman Hartnell) because Britain had not yet completely recovered from the devastation of the war.[51] In post-war Britain, it was not acceptable for Philip's German relations, including his three surviving sisters, to be invited to the wedding.[52] Neither was an invitation extended to the Duke of Windsor, formerly King Edward VIII.[53] Elizabeth gave birth to her first child, Charles, on 14 November 1948. One month earlier, the King had issued letters patent allowing her children to use the style and title of a royal prince or princess, to which they otherwise would not have been entitled as their father was no longer a royal prince.[54] A second child, Princess Anne, was born on 15 August 1950.[55] Following their wedding, the couple leased Windlesham Moor, near Windsor Castle, until July 1949,[50] when they took up residence at Clarence House in London. At various times between 1949 and 1951, the Duke of Edinburgh was stationed in the British Crown Colony of Malta as a serving Royal Navy officer. He and Elizabeth lived intermittently in Malta for several months at a time in the hamlet of Gwardamanġa, at Villa Guardamangia, the rented home of Philip's uncle, Lord Mountbatten. Their two children remained in Britain.[56] Reign Accession and coronation Main article: Coronation of Elizabeth II Coronation portrait by Cecil Beaton, 1953 George VI's health declined during 1951, and Elizabeth frequently stood in for him at public events. When she toured Canada and visited President Harry S. Truman in Washington, D.C., in October 1951, her private secretary, Martin Charteris, carried a draft accession declaration in case of the King's death while she was on tour.[57] In early 1952, Elizabeth and Philip set out for a tour of Australia and New Zealand by way of the British colony of Kenya. On 6 February 1952, they had just returned to their Kenyan home, Sagana Lodge, after a night spent at Treetops Hotel, when word arrived of the death of George VI and Elizabeth's consequent accession to the throne with immediate effect. Philip broke the news to the new queen.[58] She chose to retain Elizabeth as her regnal name;[59] thus she was called Elizabeth II, which offended many Scots, as she was the first Elizabeth to rule in Scotland.[60] She was proclaimed queen throughout her realms and the royal party hastily returned to the United Kingdom.[61] Elizabeth and Philip moved into Buckingham Palace.[62] With Elizabeth's accession, it seemed probable that the royal house would bear the Duke of Edinburgh's name, in line with the custom of a wife taking her husband's surname on marriage. Lord Mountbatten advocated the name House of Mountbatten. Philip suggested House of Edinburgh, after his ducal title.[63] The British prime minister, Winston Churchill, and Elizabeth's grandmother Queen Mary favoured the retention of the House of Windsor, so Elizabeth issued a declaration on 9 April 1952 that Windsor would continue to be the name of the royal house. Philip complained, "I am the only man in the country not allowed to give his name to his own children."[64] In 1960, the surname Mountbatten-Windsor was adopted for Philip and Elizabeth's male-line descendants who do not carry royal titles.[65] Amid preparations for the coronation, Princess Margaret told her sister she wished to marry Peter Townsend, a divorcé 16 years Margaret's senior with two sons from his previous marriage. Elizabeth asked them to wait for a year; in the words of her private secretary, "the Queen was naturally sympathetic towards the Princess, but I think she thought—she hoped—given time, the affair would peter out."[66] Senior politicians were against the match and the Church of England did not permit remarriage after divorce. If Margaret had contracted a civil marriage, she would have been expected to renounce her right of succession.[67] Margaret decided to abandon her plans with Townsend.[68] Despite the death of Queen Mary on 24 March 1953, the coronation went ahead as planned on 2 June, as Mary had requested before she died.[69] The coronation ceremony in Westminster Abbey, with the exception of the anointing and communion, was televised for the first time.[70][b] On Elizabeth's instruction, her coronation gown was embroidered with the floral emblems of Commonwealth countries.[74] Continuing evolution of the Commonwealth Further information: Commonwealth realm § From the accession of Elizabeth II Elizabeth's realms (light red and pink) and their territories and protectorates (dark red) at the beginning of her reign in 1952 From Elizabeth's birth onwards, the British Empire continued its transformation into the Commonwealth of Nations.[75] By the time of her accession in 1952, her role as head of multiple independent states was already established.[76] In 1953, Elizabeth and her husband embarked on a seven-month round-the-world tour, visiting 13 countries and covering more than 40,000 miles (64,000 km) by land, sea and air.[77] She became the first reigning monarch of Australia and New Zealand to visit those nations.[78] During the tour, crowds were immense; three-quarters of the population of Australia were estimated to have seen her.[79] Throughout her reign, Elizabeth made hundreds of state visits to other countries and tours of the Commonwealth; she was the most widely travelled head of state.[80] In 1956, the British and French prime ministers, Sir Anthony Eden and Guy Mollet, discussed the possibility of France joining the Commonwealth. The proposal was never accepted and the following year France signed the Treaty of Rome, which established the European Economic Community, the precursor to the European Union.[81] In November 1956, Britain and France invaded Egypt in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to capture the Suez Canal. Lord Mountbatten said Elizabeth was opposed to the invasion, though Eden denied it. Eden resigned two months later.[82] A formal group of Elizabeth in tiara and evening dress with eleven politicians in evening dress or national costume. With Commonwealth leaders at the 1960 Commonwealth Conference The absence of a formal mechanism within the Conservative Party for choosing a leader meant that, following Eden's resignation, it fell to Elizabeth to decide whom to commission to form a government. Eden recommended she consult Lord Salisbury, the Lord President of the Council. Lord Salisbury and Lord Kilmuir, the Lord Chancellor, consulted the British Cabinet, Churchill, and the chairman of the backbench 1922 Committee, resulting in Elizabeth appointing their recommended candidate: Harold Macmillan.[83] The Suez crisis and the choice of Eden's successor led, in 1957, to the first major personal criticism of Elizabeth. In a magazine, which he owned and edited,[84] Lord Altrincham accused her of being "out of touch".[85] Altrincham was denounced by public figures and slapped by a member of the public appalled by his comments.[86] Six years later, in 1963, Macmillan resigned and advised Elizabeth to appoint the Earl of Home as the prime minister, advice she followed.[87] Elizabeth again came under criticism for appointing the prime minister on the advice of a small number of ministers or a single minister.[87] In 1965, the Conservatives adopted a formal mechanism for electing a leader, thus relieving the Queen of her involvement.[88] Seated with Philip on thrones at the Canadian parliament, 1957 In 1957, Elizabeth made a state visit to the United States, where she addressed the United Nations General Assembly on behalf of the Commonwealth. On the same tour, she opened the 23rd Canadian Parliament, becoming the first monarch of Canada to open a parliamentary session.[89] Two years later, solely in her capacity as Queen of Canada, she revisited the United States and toured Canada.[89][90] In 1961, she toured Cyprus, India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Iran.[91] On a visit to Ghana the same year, she dismissed fears for her safety, even though her host, President Kwame Nkrumah, who had replaced her as head of state, was a target for assassins.[92] Harold Macmillan wrote, "The Queen has been absolutely determined all through ... She is impatient of the attitude towards her to treat her as ... a film star ... She has indeed 'the heart and stomach of a man' ... She loves her duty and means to be a Queen."[92] Before her tour through parts of Quebec in 1964, the press reported extremists within the Quebec separatist movement were plotting Elizabeth's assassination.[93] No attempt was made, but a riot did break out while she was in Montreal; Elizabeth's "calmness and courage in the face of the violence" was noted.[94] Elizabeth gave birth to her third child, Prince Andrew, on 19 February 1960, which was the first birth to a reigning British monarch since 1857.[95] Her fourth child, Prince Edward, was born on 10 March 1964.[96] In addition to performing traditional ceremonies, Elizabeth also instituted new practices. Her first royal walkabout, meeting ordinary members of the public, took place during a tour of Australia and New Zealand in 1970.[97] Acceleration of decolonisation In Queensland, Australia, 1970 With President Tito of Yugoslavia in Belgrade, 1972 The 1960s and 1970s saw an acceleration in the decolonisation of Africa and the Caribbean. More than 20 countries gained independence from Britain as part of a planned transition to self-government. In 1965, however, the Rhodesian prime minister, Ian Smith, in opposition to moves towards majority rule, unilaterally declared independence while expressing "loyalty and devotion" to Elizabeth, declaring her "Queen of Rhodesia".[98] Although Elizabeth formally dismissed him, and the international community applied sanctions against Rhodesia, his regime survived for over a decade.[99] As Britain's ties to its former empire weakened, the British government sought entry to the European Community, a goal it achieved in 1973.[100] Elizabeth toured Yugoslavia in October 1972, becoming the first British monarch to visit a communist country.[101] She was received at the airport by President Josip Broz Tito, and a crowd of thousands greeted her in Belgrade.[102] In February 1974, the British prime minister, Edward Heath, advised Elizabeth to call a general election in the middle of her tour of the Austronesian Pacific Rim, requiring her to fly back to Britain.[103] The election resulted in a hung parliament; Heath's Conservatives were not the largest party, but could stay in office if they formed a coalition with the Liberals. When discussions on forming a coalition foundered, Heath resigned as prime minister and Elizabeth asked the Leader of the Opposition, Labour's Harold Wilson, to form a government.[104] A year later, at the height of the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, the Australian prime minister, Gough Whitlam, was dismissed from his post by Governor-General Sir John Kerr, after the Opposition-controlled Senate rejected Whitlam's budget proposals.[105] As Whitlam had a majority in the House of Representatives, Speaker Gordon Scholes appealed to Elizabeth to reverse Kerr's decision. She declined, saying she would not interfere in decisions reserved by the Constitution of Australia for the Governor-General.[106] The crisis fuelled Australian republicanism.[105] Silver Jubilee Leaders of the G7 states, members of the royal family and Elizabeth (centre), London, 1977 In 1977, Elizabeth marked the Silver Jubilee of her accession. Parties and events took place throughout the Commonwealth, many coinciding with her associated national and Commonwealth tours. The celebrations re-affirmed Elizabeth's popularity, despite virtually coincident negative press coverage of Princess Margaret's separation from her husband, Lord Snowdon.[107] In 1978, Elizabeth endured a state visit to the United Kingdom by Romania's communist leader, Nicolae Ceaușescu, and his wife, Elena,[108] though privately she thought they had "blood on their hands".[109] The following year brought two blows: one was the unmasking of Anthony Blunt, former Surveyor of the Queen's Pictures, as a communist spy; the other was the assassination of her relative and in-law Lord Mountbatten by the Provisional Irish Republican Army.[110] According to Paul Martin Sr., by the end of the 1970s Elizabeth was worried the Crown "had little meaning for" Pierre Trudeau, the Canadian prime minister.[111] Tony Benn said Elizabeth found Trudeau "rather disappointing".[111] Trudeau's supposed republicanism seemed to be confirmed by his antics, such as sliding down banisters at Buckingham Palace and pirouetting behind Elizabeth's back in 1977, and the removal of various Canadian royal symbols during his term of office.[111] In 1980, Canadian politicians sent to London to discuss the patriation of the Canadian constitution found Elizabeth "better informed ... than any of the British politicians or bureaucrats".[111] She was particularly interested after the failure of Bill C-60, which would have affected her role as head of state.[111] Press scrutiny and Thatcher premiership Elizabeth in red uniform on a black horse Riding Burmese at the 1986 Trooping the Colour ceremony During the 1981 Trooping the Colour ceremony, six weeks before the wedding of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer, six shots were fired at Elizabeth from close range as she rode down The Mall, London, on her horse, Burmese. Police later discovered the shots were blanks. The 17-year-old assailant, Marcus Sarjeant, was sentenced to five years in prison and released after three.[112] Elizabeth's composure and skill in controlling her mount were widely praised.[113] That October Elizabeth was the subject of another attack while on a visit to Dunedin, New Zealand. Christopher John Lewis, who was 17 years old, fired a shot with a .22 rifle from the fifth floor of a building overlooking the parade, but missed.[114] Lewis was arrested, but never charged with attempted murder or treason, and sentenced to three years in jail for unlawful possession and discharge of a firearm. Two years into his sentence, he attempted to escape a psychiatric hospital with the intention of assassinating Charles, who was visiting the country with Diana and their son Prince William.[115] Elizabeth and Ronald Reagan on black horses. He bare-headed; she in a headscarf; both in tweeds, jodhpurs and riding boots. Riding at Windsor with President Reagan, June 1982 From April to September 1982, Elizabeth's son, Prince Andrew, served with British forces in the Falklands War, for which she reportedly felt anxiety[116] and pride.[117] On 9 July, she awoke in her bedroom at Buckingham Palace to find an intruder, Michael fa*gan, in the room with her. In a serious lapse of security, assistance only arrived after two calls to the Palace police switchboard.[118] After hosting US president Ronald Reagan at Windsor Castle in 1982 and visiting his California ranch in 1983, Elizabeth was angered when his administration ordered the invasion of Grenada, one of her Caribbean realms, without informing her.[119] Intense media interest in the opinions and private lives of the royal family during the 1980s led to a series of sensational stories in the press, pioneered by The Sun tabloid.[120] As Kelvin MacKenzie, editor of The Sun, told his staff: "Give me a Sunday for Monday splash on the Royals. Don't worry if it's not true—so long as there's not too much of a fuss about it afterwards."[121] Newspaper editor Donald Trelford wrote in The Observer of 21 September 1986: "The royal soap opera has now reached such a pitch of public interest that the boundary between fact and fiction has been lost sight of ... it is not just that some papers don't check their facts or accept denials: they don't care if the stories are true or not." It was reported, most notably in The Sunday Times of 20 July 1986, that Elizabeth was worried that Margaret Thatcher's economic policies fostered social divisions and was alarmed by high unemployment, a series of riots, the violence of a miners' strike, and Thatcher's refusal to apply sanctions against the apartheid regime in South Africa. The sources of the rumours included royal aide Michael Shea and Commonwealth secretary-general Shridath Ramphal, but Shea claimed his remarks were taken out of context and embellished by speculation.[122] Thatcher reputedly said Elizabeth would vote for the Social Democratic Party—Thatcher's political opponents.[123] Thatcher's biographer, John Campbell, claimed "the report was a piece of journalistic mischief-making".[124] Reports of acrimony between them were exaggerated,[125] and Elizabeth gave two honours in her personal gift—membership in the Order of Merit and the Order of the Garter—to Thatcher after her replacement as prime minister by John Major.[126] Brian Mulroney, Canadian prime minister between 1984 and 1993, said Elizabeth was a "behind the scenes force" in ending apartheid.[127][128] In 1986, Elizabeth paid a six-day state visit to the People's Republic of China, becoming the first British monarch to visit the country.[129] The tour included the Forbidden City, the Great Wall of China, and the Terracotta Warriors.[130] At a state banquet, Elizabeth joked about the first British emissary to China being lost at sea with Queen Elizabeth I's letter to the Wanli Emperor, and remarked, "fortunately postal services have improved since 1602".[131] Elizabeth's visit also signified the acceptance of both countries that sovereignty over Hong Kong would be transferred from the United Kingdom to China in 1997.[132] By the end of the 1980s, Elizabeth had become the target of satire.[133] The involvement of younger members of the royal family in the charity game show It's a Royal Knockout in 1987 was ridiculed.[134] In Canada, Elizabeth publicly supported politically divisive constitutional amendments, prompting criticism from opponents of the proposed changes, including Pierre Trudeau.[127] The same year, the elected Fijian government was deposed in a military coup. As monarch of Fiji, Elizabeth supported the attempts of Governor-General Ratu Sir Penaia Ganilau to assert executive power and negotiate a settlement. Coup leader Sitiveni Rabuka deposed Ganilau and declared Fiji a republic.[135] Turbulent 1990s and annus horribilis In the wake of coalition victory in the Gulf War, Elizabeth became the first British monarch to address a joint meeting of the United States Congress in May 1991.[136] Elizabeth, in formal dress, holds a pair of spectacles to her mouth in a thoughtful pose Philip and Elizabeth in Germany, October 1992 On 24 November 1992, in a speech to mark the Ruby Jubilee of her accession to the throne, Elizabeth called 1992 her annus horribilis (a Latin phrase, meaning "horrible year").[137] Republican feeling in Britain had risen because of press estimates of Elizabeth's private wealth—contradicted by the Palace—and reports of affairs and strained marriages among her extended family.[138] In March, her second son, Prince Andrew, separated from his wife, Sarah, and Mauritius removed Elizabeth as head of state; her daughter, Princess Anne, divorced Captain Mark Phillips in April;[139] angry demonstrators in Dresden threw eggs at Elizabeth during a state visit to Germany in October;[140] and a large fire broke out at Windsor Castle, one of her official residences, in November. The monarchy came under increased criticism and public scrutiny.[141] In an unusually personal speech, Elizabeth said that any institution must expect criticism, but suggested it might be done with "a touch of humour, gentleness and understanding".[142] Two days later, British prime minister John Major announced plans to reform the royal finances, drawn up the previous year, including Elizabeth paying income tax from 1993 onwards, and a reduction in the civil list.[143] In December, Prince Charles and his wife, Diana, formally separated.[144] At the end of the year, Elizabeth sued The Sun newspaper for breach of copyright when it published the text of her annual Christmas message two days before it was broadcast. The newspaper was forced to pay her legal fees and donated £200,000 to charity.[145] Elizabeth's solicitors had taken action against The Sun five years earlier for breach of copyright after it published a photograph of her daughter-in-law the duch*ess of York and her granddaughter Princess Beatrice. The case was solved with an out-of-court settlement that ordered the newspaper to pay $180,000.[clarification needed][146] In January 1994, Elizabeth broke the scaphoid bone in her left wrist as the horse she was riding at Sandringham House tripped and fell.[147] In October 1994, she became the first reigning British monarch to set foot on Russian soil.[c] In October 1995, Elizabeth was tricked into a hoax call by Montreal radio host Pierre Brassard impersonating Canadian prime minister Jean Chrétien. Elizabeth, who believed that she was speaking to Chrétien, said she supported Canadian unity and would try to influence Quebec's referendum on proposals to break away from Canada.[152] In the year that followed, public revelations on the state of Charles and Diana's marriage continued.[153] In consultation with her husband and John Major, as well as the Archbishop of Canterbury, George Carey, and her private secretary, Robert Fellowes, Elizabeth wrote to Charles and Diana at the end of December 1995, suggesting that a divorce would be advisable.[154] In August 1997, a year after the divorce, Diana was killed in a car crash in Paris. Elizabeth was on holiday with her extended family at Balmoral. Diana's two sons, Princes William and Harry, wanted to attend church, so Elizabeth and Philip took them that morning.[155] Afterwards, for five days the royal couple shielded their grandsons from the intense press interest by keeping them at Balmoral where they could grieve in private,[156] but the royal family's silence and seclusion, and the failure to fly a flag at half-mast over Buckingham Palace, caused public dismay.[128][157] Pressured by the hostile reaction, Elizabeth agreed to return to London and address the nation in a live television broadcast on 5 September, the day before Diana's funeral.[158] In the broadcast, she expressed admiration for Diana and her feelings "as a grandmother" for the two princes.[159] As a result, much of the public hostility evaporated.[159] In October 1997, Elizabeth and Philip made a state visit to India, which included a controversial visit to the site of the Jallianwala Bagh massacre to pay her respects. Protesters chanted "Killer Queen, go back",[160] and there were demands for her to apologise for the action of British troops 78 years earlier.[161] At the memorial in the park, she and Philip paid their respects by laying a wreath and stood for a 30‑second moment of silence.[161] As a result, much of the fury among the public softened and the protests were called off.[160] That November, Elizabeth and her husband held a reception at Banqueting House to mark their golden wedding anniversary.[162] Elizabeth made a speech and praised Philip for his role as a consort, referring to him as "my strength and stay".[162] In 1999, as part of the process of devolution within the UK, Elizabeth formally opened newly established legislatures for Wales and Scotland: the National Assembly for Wales at Cardiff in May,[163] and the Scottish Parliament at Edinburgh in July.[164] Golden Jubilee At a Golden Jubilee dinner with British prime minister Tony Blair and former prime ministers, 2002. From left to right: Blair, Margaret Thatcher, Edward Heath, Elizabeth, James Callaghan and John Major On the eve of the new millennium, Elizabeth and Philip boarded a vessel from Southwark, bound for the Millennium Dome. Before passing under Tower Bridge, Elizabeth lit the National Millennium Beacon in the Pool of London using a laser torch.[165] Shortly before midnight, she officially opened the Dome.[166] During the singing of Auld Lang Syne, Elizabeth held hands with Philip and British prime minister Tony Blair.[167] In 2002, Elizabeth marked her Golden Jubilee, the 50th anniversary of her accession. Her sister and mother died in February and March respectively, and the media speculated on whether the Jubilee would be a success or a failure.[168] She again undertook an extensive tour of her realms, beginning in Jamaica in February, where she called the farewell banquet "memorable" after a power cut plunged the King's House, the official residence of the governor-general, into darkness.[169] As in 1977, there were street parties and commemorative events, and monuments were named to honour the occasion. One million people attended each day of the three-day main Jubilee celebration in London,[170] and the enthusiasm shown for Elizabeth by the public was greater than many journalists had anticipated.[171] Greeting NASA employees at the Goddard Space Flight Center, Maryland, May 2007 In 2003, Elizabeth sued Daily Mirror for breach of confidence and obtained an injunction which prevented the outlet from publishing information gathered by a reporter who posed as a footman at Buckingham Palace.[172] The newspaper also paid £25,000 towards her legal costs.[173] Though generally healthy throughout her life, in 2003 Elizabeth had keyhole surgery on both knees. In October 2006, she missed the opening of the new Emirates Stadium because of a strained back muscle that had been troubling her since the summer.[174] In May 2007, citing unnamed sources, The Daily Telegraph reported that Elizabeth was "exasperated and frustrated" by the policies of Tony Blair, that she was concerned the British Armed Forces were overstretched in Iraq and Afghanistan, and that she had raised concerns over rural and countryside issues with Blair.[175] She was, however, said to admire Blair's efforts to achieve peace in Northern Ireland.[176] She became the first British monarch to celebrate a diamond wedding anniversary in November 2007.[177] On 20 March 2008, at the Church of Ireland St Patrick's Cathedral, Armagh, Elizabeth attended the first Maundy service held outside England and Wales.[178] Elizabeth addressed the UN General Assembly for a second time in 2010, again in her capacity as Queen of all Commonwealth realms and Head of the Commonwealth.[179] The UN secretary-general, Ban Ki-moon, introduced her as "an anchor for our age".[180] During her visit to New York, which followed a tour of Canada, she officially opened a memorial garden for British victims of the September 11 attacks.[180] Elizabeth's 11-day visit to Australia in October 2011 was her 16th visit to the country since 1954.[181] By invitation of the Irish president, Mary McAleese, she made the first state visit to the Republic of Ireland by a British monarch in May 2011.[182] Diamond Jubilee and longevity Visiting Birmingham in July 2012 as part of the Diamond Jubilee tour Elizabeth's 2012 Diamond Jubilee marked 60 years on the throne, and celebrations were held throughout her realms, the wider Commonwealth, and beyond. She and her husband undertook an extensive tour of the United Kingdom, while her children and grandchildren embarked on royal tours of other Commonwealth states on her behalf.[183] On 4 June, Jubilee beacons were lit around the world.[184] In November, Elizabeth and her husband celebrated their blue sapphire wedding anniversary (65th).[185] On 18 December, she became the first British sovereign to attend a peacetime Cabinet meeting since George III in 1781.[186] Elizabeth, who opened the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, also opened the 2012 Summer Olympics and Paralympics in London, making her the first head of state to open two Olympic Games in two countries.[187] For the London Olympics, she played herself in a short film as part of the opening ceremony, alongside Daniel Craig as James Bond.[188] On 4 April 2013, she received an honorary BAFTA for her patronage of the film industry and was called "the most memorable Bond girl yet" at the award ceremony.[189] Opening the Borders Railway on the day she became the longest-reigning British monarch, 2015. In her speech, she said she had never aspired to achieve that milestone.[190] On 3 March 2013, Elizabeth stayed overnight at King Edward VII's Hospital as a precaution after developing symptoms of gastroenteritis.[191] A week later, she signed the new Charter of the Commonwealth.[192] Because of her age and the need for her to limit travelling, in 2013 she chose not to attend the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting for the first time in 40 years. She was represented at the summit in Sri Lanka by Prince Charles.[193] On 20 April 2018, the Commonwealth heads of government announced that she would be succeeded by Charles as Head of the Commonwealth, which she stated was her "sincere wish".[194] She underwent cataract surgery in May 2018.[195] In March 2019, she gave up driving on public roads, largely as a consequence of a car crash involving her husband two months earlier.[196] Elizabeth surpassed her great-great-grandmother, Queen Victoria, to become the longest-lived British monarch on 21 December 2007, and the longest-reigning British monarch and longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state in the world on 9 September 2015.[197] She became the oldest current monarch after King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia died on 23 January 2015.[198] She later became the longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state following the death of King Bhumibol of Thailand on 13 October 2016,[199] and the oldest current head of state on the resignation of Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe on 21 November 2017.[200] On 6 February 2017, she became the first British monarch to commemorate a sapphire jubilee,[201] and on 20 November, she was the first British monarch to celebrate a platinum wedding anniversary.[202] Philip had retired from his official duties as the Queen's consort in August 2017.[203] cvd-19 pandemic On 19 March 2020, as the cvd-19 pandemic hit the United Kingdom, Elizabeth moved to Windsor Castle and sequestered there as a precaution.[204] Public engagements were cancelled and Windsor Castle followed a strict sanitary protocol nicknamed "HMS Bubble".[205] In a virtual meeting with Dame Cindy Kiro during the cvd-19 pandemic, October 2021 On 5 April, in a televised broadcast watched by an estimated 24 million viewers in the UK,[206] she asked people to "take comfort that while we may have more still to endure, better days will return: we will be with our friends again; we will be with our families again; we will meet again."[207] On 8 May, the 75th anniversary of VE Day, in a television broadcast at 9 pm—the exact time at which her father George VI had broadcast to the nation on the same day in 1945—she asked people to "never give up, never despair".[208] In October, she visited the UK's Defence Science and Technology Laboratory in Wiltshire, her first public engagement since the start of the pandemic.[209] On 4 November, she appeared masked for the first time in public, during a private pilgrimage to the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior at Westminster Abbey, to mark the centenary of his burial.[210] In 2021, she received her first and second cvd-19 vaccinations in January and April respectively.[211] Prince Philip died on 9 April 2021, after 73 years of marriage, making Elizabeth the first British monarch to reign as a widow or widower since Queen Victoria.[212] She was reportedly at her husband's bedside when he died,[213] and remarked in private that his death had "left a huge void".[214] Due to the cvd-19 restrictions in place in England at the time, Elizabeth sat alone at Philip's funeral service, which evoked sympathy from people around the world.[215] In her Christmas broadcast that year, she paid a personal tribute to her "beloved Philip", saying, "That mischievous, inquiring twinkle was as bright at the end as when I first set eyes on him".[216] Despite the pandemic, Elizabeth attended the 2021 State Opening of Parliament in May,[217] and the 47th G7 summit in June.[218] On 5 July, the 73rd anniversary of the founding of the UK's National Health Service, she announced that the NHS will be awarded the George Cross to "recognise all NHS staff, past and present, across all disciplines and all four nations".[219] In October 2021, she began using a walking stick during public engagements for the first time since her operation in 2004.[220] Following an overnight stay in hospital on 20 October, her previously scheduled visits to Northern Ireland,[221] the COP26 summit in Glasgow,[222] and the 2021 National Service of Remembrance were cancelled on health grounds.[223] Platinum Jubilee Drones forming a corgi above Buckingham Palace at the Platinum Party at the Palace on 4 June 2022 Elizabeth's Platinum Jubilee began on 6 February 2022, marking 70 years since she acceded to the throne on her father's death. On the eve of the date, she held a reception at Sandringham House for pensioners, local Women's Institute members and charity volunteers.[224] In her accession day message, Elizabeth renewed her commitment to a lifetime of public service, which she had originally made in 1947.[225] Later that month, Elizabeth had "mild cold-like symptoms" and tested positive for cvd-19, along with some staff and family members.[226] She cancelled two virtual audiences on 22 February,[227] but held a phone conversation with British prime minister Boris Johnson the following day amid a crisis on the Russo-Ukrainian border,[d][228] following which she made a donation to the Disasters Emergency Committee (DEC) Ukraine Humanitarian Appeal.[229] On 28 February, she was reported to have recovered and spent time with her family at Frogmore.[230] On 7 March, Elizabeth met Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau at Windsor Castle, in her first in-person engagement since her cvd diagnosis.[231] She later remarked that cvd infection "leave[s] one very tired and exhausted ... It's not a nice result".[232] Elizabeth was present at the service of thanksgiving for Prince Philip at Westminster Abbey on 29 March,[233] but was unable to attend the annual Commonwealth Day service that month[234] or the Royal Maundy service in April.[235] She missed the State Opening of Parliament in May for the first time in 59 years. (She did not attend in 1959 and 1963 as she was pregnant with Prince Andrew and Prince Edward, respectively.)[236] In her absence, Parliament was opened by the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Cambridge as counsellors of state.[237] During the Platinum Jubilee celebrations, Elizabeth was largely confined to balcony appearances, and missed the National Service of Thanksgiving.[238] For the Jubilee concert, she took part in a sketch with Paddington Bear, that opened the event outside Buckingham Palace.[239] On 13 June 2022, she became the second-longest reigning monarch in history among those whose exact dates of reign are known, with 70 years, 127 days reigned—surpassing King Bhumibol Adulyadej of Thailand.[240] On 6 September 2022, she appointed her 15th British prime minister, Liz Truss, at Balmoral Castle in Scotland. This marked the only time she did not receive a new prime minister at Buckingham Palace during her reign.[241] No other British reign had seen so many prime ministers.[242] Elizabeth never planned to abdicate,[243] though she took on fewer public engagements as she grew older and Prince Charles took on more of her duties.[244] The Queen told Canadian governor general Adrienne Clarkson in a meeting in 2002 that she would never abdicate, saying "It is not our tradition. Although, I suppose if I became completely gaga, one would have to do something".[245] In June 2022, Elizabeth met the Archbishop of Canterbury, Justin Welby, who "came away thinking there is someone who has no fear of death, has hope in the future, knows the rock on which she stands and that gives her strength."[246] Death Main article: Death and state funeral of Elizabeth II Tributes left by people in The Mall, London On 8 September 2022, Buckingham Palace released a statement which read: "Following further evaluation this morning, the Queen's doctors are concerned for Her Majesty's health and have recommended she remain under medical supervision. The Queen remains comfortable and at Balmoral."[247] Elizabeth's immediate family rushed to Balmoral to be by her side.[248] She died "peacefully" at 15:10 BST at the age of 96, with her death being announced to the public at 18:30,[249] setting in motion Operation London Bridge and, because she died in Scotland, Operation Unicorn.[250] Elizabeth was the first monarch to die in Scotland since James V in 1542.[251] Her cause of death was recorded as "old age".[252] On 12 September, Elizabeth's coffin was carried up the Royal Mile in a procession to St Giles' Cathedral, where the Crown of Scotland was placed on it.[253] Her coffin lay at rest at the cathedral for 24 hours, guarded by the Royal Company of Archers, during which around 33,000 people filed past the coffin.[254] It was taken by air to London on 13 September. On 14 September, her coffin was taken in a military procession from Buckingham Palace to Westminster Hall, where Elizabeth lay in state for four days. The coffin was guarded by members of both the Sovereign's Bodyguard and the Household Division. An estimated 250,000 members of the public filed past the coffin, as did politicians and other public figures.[255][256] On 16 September, Elizabeth's children held a vigil around her coffin, and the next day her eight grandchildren did the same.[257][258] Queen Elizabeth II's coffin on the State Gun Carriage of the Royal Navy, during the procession to Wellington Arch Elizabeth's state funeral was held at Westminster Abbey on 19 September, which marked the first time that a monarch's funeral service had been held at the Abbey since George II in 1760.[259] More than a million people lined the streets of central London,[260] and the day was declared a holiday in several Commonwealth countries. In Windsor, a final procession involving 1,000 military personnel took place which was witnessed by 97,000 people.[261][260] Elizabeth's fell pony, and two royal corgis, stood at the side of the procession.[262] After a Committal Service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Elizabeth was interred with her husband Philip in the King George VI Memorial Chapel later the same day in a private ceremony attended by her closest family members.[263] Legacy Main article: Personality and image of Elizabeth II Beliefs, activities and interests Petting a dog in New Zealand, 1974 Elizabeth rarely gave interviews and little was known of her personal feelings. She did not explicitly express her own political opinions in a public forum, and it is against convention to ask or reveal the monarch's views. When Times journalist Paul Routledge asked Elizabeth for her opinions on the miners' strike of 1984–85, she replied that it was "all about one man" (a reference to Arthur Scargill), with which Routledge disagreed.[264] Widely criticised in the media for asking the question, Routledge said he was not initially due to be present for the royal visit and was unaware of the protocols.[264] After the 2014 Scottish independence referendum, Prime Minister David Cameron stated that Elizabeth was pleased with the outcome.[265] She had arguably issued a public coded statement about the referendum by telling one woman outside Balmoral Kirk that she hoped people would think "very carefully" about the outcome. It emerged later that Cameron had specifically requested that she register her concern.[266] Elizabeth had a deep sense of religious and civic duty, and took her Coronation Oath seriously.[267] Aside from her official religious role as Supreme Governor of the established Church of England, she worshipped with that church and also the national Church of Scotland.[268] She demonstrated support for inter-faith relations and met with leaders of other churches and religions, including five popes: Pius XII, John XXIII, John Paul II, Benedict XVI and Francis.[269] A personal note about her faith often featured in her annual Christmas Message broadcast to the Commonwealth. In 2000, she said:[270] To many of us, our beliefs are of fundamental importance. For me the teachings of Christ and my own personal accountability before God provide a framework in which I try to lead my life. I, like so many of you, have drawn great comfort in difficult times from Christ's words and example. Elizabeth was patron of more than 600 organisations and charities.[271] The Charities Aid Foundation estimated that Elizabeth helped raise over £1.4 billion for her patronages during her reign.[272] Her main leisure interests included equestrianism and dogs, especially her Pembroke Welsh Corgis.[273] Her lifelong love of corgis began in 1933 with Dookie, the first corgi owned by her family.[274] Scenes of a relaxed, informal home life were occasionally witnessed; she and her family, from time to time, prepared a meal together and washed the dishes afterwards.[275] Media depiction and public opinion Magazines from the 1950s with Elizabeth II on their cover In the 1950s, as a young woman at the start of her reign, Elizabeth was depicted as a glamorous "fairytale Queen".[276] After the trauma of the Second World War, it was a time of hope, a period of progress and achievement heralding a "new Elizabethan age".[277] Lord Altrincham's accusation in 1957 that her speeches sounded like those of a "priggish schoolgirl" was an extremely rare criticism.[278] In the late 1960s, attempts to portray a more modern image of the monarchy were made in the television documentary Royal Family and by televising Prince Charles's investiture as Prince of Wales.[279] Her wardrobe developed a recognisable, signature style driven more by function than fashion.[280] She dressed with an eye toward what was appropriate, rather than what was in vogue.[281][page needed] In public, she took to wearing mostly solid-colour overcoats and decorative hats, allowing her to be seen easily in a crowd.[282] Her wardrobe was handled by a team that included five dressers, a dressmaker, and a milliner.[283][page needed] At Elizabeth's Silver Jubilee in 1977, the crowds and celebrations were genuinely enthusiastic;[284] but, in the 1980s, public criticism of the royal family increased, as the personal and working lives of Elizabeth's children came under media scrutiny.[285] Her popularity sank to a low point in the 1990s. Under pressure from public opinion, she began to pay income tax for the first time, and Buckingham Palace was opened to the public.[286] Although support for republicanism in Britain seemed higher than at any time in living memory, republican ideology was still a minority viewpoint and Elizabeth herself had high approval ratings.[287] Criticism was focused on the institution of the monarchy itself, and the conduct of Elizabeth's wider family, rather than her own behaviour and actions.[288] Discontent with the monarchy reached its peak on the death of Diana, Princess of Wales, although Elizabeth's personal popularity—as well as general support for the monarchy—rebounded after her live television broadcast to the world five days after Diana's death.[289] Meeting children in Brisbane, Australia, October 1982 In November 1999, a referendum in Australia on the future of the Australian monarchy favoured its retention in preference to an indirectly elected head of state.[290] Many republicans credited Elizabeth's personal popularity with the survival of the monarchy in Australia. In 2010, Prime Minister Julia Gillard noted that there was a "deep affection" for Elizabeth in Australia and another referendum on the monarchy should wait until after her reign.[291] Gillard's successor, Malcolm Turnbull, who led the republican campaign in 1999, similarly believed that Australians would not vote to become a republic in her lifetime.[292] "She's been an extraordinary head of state", Turnbull said in 2021, "and I think frankly, in Australia, there are more Elizabethans than there are monarchists".[293] Similarly, referendums in both Tuvalu in 2008 and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in 2009 saw voters reject proposals to become republics.[294] Polls in Britain in 2006 and 2007 revealed strong support for the monarchy,[295] and in 2012, Elizabeth's Diamond Jubilee year, her approval ratings hit 90 per cent.[296] Her family came under scrutiny again in the last few years of her life due to her son Andrew's association with convicted sex offenders Jeffrey Epstein and Ghislaine Maxwell, his lawsuit with Virginia Giuffre amidst accusations of sexual impropriety, and her grandson Harry and his wife Meghan's exit from the monarchy and subsequent move to the United States.[297] Polling in Great Britain during the Platinum Jubilee, however, showed Elizabeth's personal popularity remained strong.[298] As of 2021 she remained the third most admired woman in the world according to the annual Gallup poll, her 52 appearances on the list meaning she had been in the top ten more than any other woman in the poll's history.[299] Elizabeth was portrayed in a variety of media by many notable artists, including painters Pietro Annigoni, Peter Blake, Chinwe Chukwuogo-Roy, Terence Cuneo, Lucian Freud, Rolf Harris, Damien Hirst, Juliet Pannett and Tai-Shan Schierenberg.[300][301] Notable photographers of Elizabeth included Cecil Beaton, Yousuf Karsh, Anwar Hussein, Annie Leibovitz, Lord Lichfield, Terry O'Neill, John Swannell and Dorothy Wilding. The first official portrait photograph of Elizabeth was taken by Marcus Adams in 1926.[302] Finances Further information: Finances of the British royal family View of Sandringham House from the south bank of the Upper Lake Sandringham House, Elizabeth's residence in Norfolk, which she personally owned Elizabeth's personal wealth was the subject of speculation for many years. In 1971, Jock Colville, her former private secretary and a director of her bank, Coutts, estimated her wealth at £2 million (equivalent to about £30 million in 2021[303]).[304] In 1993, Buckingham Palace called estimates of £100 million "grossly overstated".[305] In 2002, she inherited an estate worth an estimated £70 million from her mother.[306] The Sunday Times Rich List 2020 estimated her personal wealth at £350 million, making her the 372nd richest person in the UK.[307] She was number one on the list when it began in the Sunday Times Rich List 1989, with a reported wealth of £5.2 billion (approximately £13.8 billion in today's value),[303] which included state assets that were not hers personally.[308] The Royal Collection, which includes thousands of historic works of art and the Crown Jewels, was not owned personally but was described as being held in trust by Elizabeth for her successors and the nation,[309] as were her official residences, such as Buckingham Palace and Windsor Castle,[310] and the Duchy of Lancaster, a property portfolio valued at £472 million in 2015.[311] The Paradise Papers, leaked in 2017, show that the Duchy of Lancaster held investments in the British tax havens of the Cayman Islands and Bermuda.[312] Sandringham House in Norfolk and Balmoral Castle in Aberdeenshire were personally owned by Elizabeth.[310] The Crown Estate—with holdings of £14.3 billion in 2019[313]—is held in trust and could not be sold or owned by her in a personal capacity.[314] Queen Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom (more ...) Reign 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Coronation 28 June 1838 Predecessor William IV Successor Edward VII Empress of India Reign 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 Imperial Durbar 1 January 1877 Successor Edward VII Born Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 24 May 1819 Kensington Palace, London, England Died 22 January 1901 (aged 81) Osborne House, Isle of Wight, England Burial 4 February 1901 Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, Windsor Spouse Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (m. 1840; died 1861) Issue Victoria, German Empress Edward VII, King of the United Kingdom Alice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by Rhine Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg House Hanover Father Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Mother Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Signature Victoria's signature Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death in 1901. Known as the Victorian era, her reign of 63 years and seven months was longer than any previous British monarch. It was a period of industrial, political, scientific, and military change within the United Kingdom, and was marked by a great expansion of the British Empire. In 1876, the British Parliament voted to grant her the additional title of Empress of India. Victoria was the daughter of Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (the fourth son of King George III), and Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. After the deaths of her father and grandfather in 1820, she was raised under close supervision by her mother and her comptroller, John Conroy. She inherited the throne aged 18 after her father's three elder brothers died without surviving legitimate issue. Victoria, a constitutional monarch, attempted privately to influence government policy and ministerial appointments; publicly, she became a national icon who was identified with strict standards of personal morality. Victoria married her first cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, in 1840. Their children married into royal and noble families across the continent, earning Victoria the sobriquet "the grandmother of Europe" and spreading haemophilia in European royalty. After Albert's death in 1861, Victoria plunged into deep mourning and avoided public appearances. As a result of her seclusion, British republicanism temporarily gained strength, but in the latter half of her reign, her popularity recovered. Her Golden and Diamond jubilees were times of public celebration. She died on the Isle of Wight in 1901. The last British monarch of the House of Hanover, she was succeeded by her son Edward VII of the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Birth and family Portrait of Victoria at age 4 Victoria at age four, by Stephen Poyntz Denning, 1823 Victoria's father was Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of the reigning King of the United Kingdom, George III. Until 1817, Edward's niece, Princess Charlotte of Wales, was the only legitimate grandchild of George III. Her death in 1817 precipitated a succession crisis that brought pressure on the Duke of Kent and his unmarried brothers to marry and have children. In 1818 he married Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, a widowed German princess with two children—Carl (1804–1856) and Feodora (1807–1872)—by her first marriage to Emich Carl, 2nd Prince of Leiningen. Her brother Leopold was Princess Charlotte's widower and later the first king of Belgium. The Duke and duch*ess of Kent's only child, Victoria, was born at 4:15 a.m. on 24 May 1819 at Kensington Palace in London.[1] Victoria was christened privately by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Manners-Sutton, on 24 June 1819 in the Cupola Room at Kensington Palace.[a] She was baptised Alexandrina after one of her godparents, Tsar Alexander I of Russia, and Victoria, after her mother. Additional names proposed by her parents—Georgina (or Georgiana), Charlotte, and Augusta—were dropped on the instructions of Kent's eldest brother George, Prince Regent.[2] At birth, Victoria was fifth in the line of succession after the four eldest sons of George III: the Prince Regent (later George IV); Frederick, Duke of York; William, Duke of Clarence (later William IV); and Victoria's father, Edward, Duke of Kent.[3] The Prince Regent had no surviving children, and the Duke of York had no children; further, both were estranged from their wives, who were both past child-bearing age, so the two eldest brothers were unlikely to have any further legitimate children. William and Edward married on the same day in 1818, but both of William's legitimate daughters died as infants. The first of these was Princess Charlotte, who was born and died on 27 March 1819, two months before Victoria was born. Victoria's father died in January 1820, when Victoria was less than a year old. A week later her grandfather died and was succeeded by his eldest son as George IV. Victoria was then third in line to the throne after Frederick and William. William's second daughter, Princess Elizabeth of Clarence, lived for twelve weeks from 10 December 1820 to 4 March 1821, and for that period Victoria was fourth in line.[4] The Duke of York died in 1827, followed by George IV in 1830; the throne passed to their next surviving brother, William, and Victoria became heir presumptive. The Regency Act 1830 made special provision for Victoria's mother to act as regent in case William died while Victoria was still a minor.[5] King William distrusted the duch*ess's capacity to be regent, and in 1836 he declared in her presence that he wanted to live until Victoria's 18th birthday, so that a regency could be avoided.[6] Heir presumptive Portrait of Victoria with her spaniel Dash by George Hayter, 1833 Victoria later described her childhood as "rather melancholy".[7] Her mother was extremely protective, and Victoria was raised largely isolated from other children under the so-called "Kensington System", an elaborate set of rules and protocols devised by the duch*ess and her ambitious and domineering comptroller, Sir John Conroy, who was rumoured to be the duch*ess's lover.[8] The system prevented the princess from meeting people whom her mother and Conroy deemed undesirable (including most of her father's family), and was designed to render her weak and dependent upon them.[9] The duch*ess avoided the court because she was scandalised by the presence of King William's illegitimate children.[10] Victoria shared a bedroom with her mother every night, studied with private tutors to a regular timetable, and spent her play-hours with her dolls and her King Charles Spaniel, Dash.[11] Her lessons included French, German, Italian, and Latin,[12] but she spoke only English at home.[13] Victoria's sketch of herself Self-portrait, 1835 In 1830, the duch*ess of Kent and Conroy took Victoria across the centre of England to visit the Malvern Hills, stopping at towns and great country houses along the way.[14] Similar journeys to other parts of England and Wales were taken in 1832, 1833, 1834 and 1835. To the King's annoyance, Victoria was enthusiastically welcomed in each of the stops.[15] William compared the journeys to royal progresses and was concerned that they portrayed Victoria as his rival rather than his heir presumptive.[16] Victoria disliked the trips; the constant round of public appearances made her tired and ill, and there was little time for her to rest.[17] She objected on the grounds of the King's disapproval, but her mother dismissed his complaints as motivated by jealousy and forced Victoria to continue the tours.[18] At Ramsgate in October 1835, Victoria contracted a severe fever, which Conroy initially dismissed as a childish pretence.[19] While Victoria was ill, Conroy and the duch*ess unsuccessfully badgered her to make Conroy her private secretary.[20] As a teenager, Victoria resisted persistent attempts by her mother and Conroy to appoint him to her staff.[21] Once queen, she banned him from her presence, but he remained in her mother's household.[22] By 1836, Victoria's maternal uncle Leopold, who had been King of the Belgians since 1831, hoped to marry her to Prince Albert,[23] the son of his brother Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Leopold arranged for Victoria's mother to invite her Coburg relatives to visit her in May 1836, with the purpose of introducing Victoria to Albert.[24] William IV, however, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander of the Netherlands, second son of the Prince of Orange.[25] Victoria was aware of the various matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes.[26] According to her diary, she enjoyed Albert's company from the beginning. After the visit she wrote, "[Albert] is extremely handsome; his hair is about the same colour as mine; his eyes are large and blue, and he has a beautiful nose and a very sweet mouth with fine teeth; but the charm of his countenance is his expression, which is most delightful."[27] Alexander, on the other hand, she described as "very plain".[28] Victoria wrote to King Leopold, whom she considered her "best and kindest adviser",[29] to thank him "for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me, in the person of dear Albert ... He possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy. He is so sensible, so kind, and so good, and so amiable too. He has besides the most pleasing and delightful exterior and appearance you can possibly see."[30] However at 17, Victoria, though interested in Albert, was not yet ready to marry. The parties did not undertake a formal engagement, but assumed that the match would take place in due time.[31] Early reign Accession Drawing of two men on their knees in front of Victoria Victoria receives the news of her accession from Lord Conyngham (left) and the Archbishop of Canterbury. Painting by Henry Tanworth Wells, 1887. Victoria turned 18 on 24 May 1837, and a regency was avoided. Less than a month later, on 20 June 1837, William IV died at the age of 71, and Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom.[b] In her diary she wrote, "I was awoke at 6 o'clock by Mamma, who told me the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham were here and wished to see me. I got out of bed and went into my sitting-room (only in my dressing gown) and alone, and saw them. Lord Conyngham then acquainted me that my poor Uncle, the King, was no more, and had expired at 12 minutes past 2 this morning, and consequently that I am Queen."[32] Official documents prepared on the first day of her reign described her as Alexandrina Victoria, but the first name was withdrawn at her own wish and not used again.[33] Since 1714, Britain had shared a monarch with Hanover in Germany, but under Salic law, women were excluded from the Hanoverian succession. While Victoria inherited the British throne, her father's unpopular younger brother, Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, became King of Hanover. He was Victoria's heir presumptive until she had a child.[34] Coronation portrait by George Hayter At the time of Victoria's accession, the government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne. He at once became a powerful influence on the politically inexperienced monarch, who relied on him for advice.[35] Charles Greville supposed that the widowed and childless Melbourne was "passionately fond of her as he might be of his daughter if he had one", and Victoria probably saw him as a father figure.[36] Her coronation took place on 28 June 1838 at Westminster Abbey. Over 400,000 visitors came to London for the celebrations.[37] She became the first sovereign to take up residence at Buckingham Palace[38] and inherited the revenues of the duchies of Lancaster and Cornwall as well as being granted a civil list allowance of £385,000 per year. Financially prudent, she paid off her father's debts.[39] At the start of her reign Victoria was popular,[40] but her reputation suffered in an 1839 court intrigue when one of her mother's ladies-in-waiting, Lady Flora Hastings, developed an abdominal growth that was widely rumoured to be an out-of-wedlock pregnancy by Sir John Conroy.[41] Victoria believed the rumours.[42] She hated Conroy, and despised "that odious Lady Flora",[43] because she had conspired with Conroy and the duch*ess of Kent in the Kensington System.[44] At first, Lady Flora refused to submit to an intimate medical examination, until in mid-February she eventually acquiesced, and was found to be a virgin.[45] Conroy, the Hastings family, and the opposition Tories organised a press campaign implicating the Queen in the spreading of false rumours about Lady Flora.[46] When Lady Flora died in July, the post-mortem revealed a large tumour on her liver that had distended her abdomen.[47] At public appearances, Victoria was hissed and jeered as "Mrs. Melbourne".[48] In 1839, Melbourne resigned after Radicals and Tories (both of whom Victoria detested) voted against a bill to suspend the constitution of Jamaica. The bill removed political power from plantation owners who were resisting measures associated with the abolition of slavery.[49] The Queen commissioned a Tory, Robert Peel, to form a new ministry. At the time, it was customary for the prime minister to appoint members of the Royal Household, who were usually his political allies and their spouses. Many of the Queen's ladies of the bedchamber were wives of Whigs, and Peel expected to replace them with wives of Tories. In what became known as the "bedchamber crisis", Victoria, advised by Melbourne, objected to their removal. Peel refused to govern under the restrictions imposed by the Queen, and consequently resigned his commission, allowing Melbourne to return to office.[50] Marriage See also: Wedding of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha and Wedding dress of Queen Victoria Painting of a lavish wedding attended by richly dressed people in a magnificent room Marriage of Victoria and Albert, painted by George Hayter Though Victoria was now queen, as an unmarried young woman she was required by social convention to live with her mother, despite their differences over the Kensington System and her mother's continued reliance on Conroy.[51] Her mother was consigned to a remote apartment in Buckingham Palace, and Victoria often refused to see her.[52] When Victoria complained to Melbourne that her mother's proximity promised "torment for many years", Melbourne sympathised but said it could be avoided by marriage, which Victoria called a "schocking [sic] alternative".[53] Victoria showed interest in Albert's education for the future role he would have to play as her husband, but she resisted attempts to rush her into wedlock.[54] Victoria continued to praise Albert following his second visit in October 1839. Albert and Victoria felt mutual affection and the Queen proposed to him on 15 October 1839, just five days after he had arrived at Windsor.[55] They were married on 10 February 1840, in the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace, London. Victoria was love-struck. She spent the evening after their wedding lying down with a headache, but wrote ecstatically in her diary: I NEVER, NEVER spent such an evening!!! MY DEAREST DEAREST DEAR Albert ... his excessive love & affection gave me feelings of heavenly love & happiness I never could have hoped to have felt before! He clasped me in his arms, & we kissed each other again & again! His beauty, his sweetness & gentleness – really how can I ever be thankful enough to have such a Husband! ... to be called by names of tenderness, I have never yet heard used to me before – was bliss beyond belief! Oh! This was the happiest day of my life![56] Albert became an important political adviser as well as the Queen's companion, replacing Melbourne as the dominant influential figure in the first half of her life.[57] Victoria's mother was evicted from the palace, to Ingestre House in Belgrave Square. After the death of Victoria's aunt, Princess Augusta, in 1840, Victoria's mother was given both Clarence and Frogmore Houses.[58] Through Albert's mediation, relations between mother and daughter slowly improved.[59] Contemporary lithograph of Edward Oxford's attempt to assassinate Victoria, 1840 During Victoria's first pregnancy in 1840, in the first few months of the marriage, 18-year-old Edward Oxford attempted to assassinate her while she was riding in a carriage with Prince Albert on her way to visit her mother. Oxford fired twice, but either both bullets missed or, as he later claimed, the guns had no shot.[60] He was tried for high treason, found not guilty by reason of insanity, committed to an insane asylum indefinitely, and later sent to live in Australia.[61] In the immediate aftermath of the attack, Victoria's popularity soared, mitigating residual discontent over the Hastings affair and the bedchamber crisis.[62] Her daughter, also named Victoria, was born on 21 November 1840. The Queen hated being pregnant,[63] viewed breast-feeding with disgust,[64] and thought newborn babies were ugly.[65] Nevertheless, over the following seventeen years, she and Albert had a further eight children: Albert Edward (b. 1841), Alice (b. 1843), Alfred (b. 1844), Helena (b. 1846), Louise (b. 1848), Arthur (b. 1850), Leopold (b. 1853) and Beatrice (b. 1857). The household was largely run by Victoria's childhood governess, Baroness Louise Lehzen from Hanover. Lehzen had been a formative influence on Victoria[66] and had supported her against the Kensington System.[67] Albert, however, thought that Lehzen was incompetent and that her mismanagement threatened his daughter's health. After a furious row between Victoria and Albert over the issue, Lehzen was pensioned off in 1842, and Victoria's close relationship with her ended.[68] Married reign Portrait by Franz Xaver Winterhalter, 1843 On 29 May 1842, Victoria was riding in a carriage along The Mall, London, when John Francis aimed a pistol at her, but the gun did not fire. The assailant escaped; the following day, Victoria drove the same route, though faster and with a greater escort, in a deliberate attempt to bait Francis into taking a second aim and catch him in the act. As expected, Francis shot at her, but he was seized by plainclothes policemen, and convicted of high treason. On 3 July, two days after Francis's death sentence was commuted to transportation for life, John William Bean also tried to fire a pistol at the Queen, but it was loaded only with paper and tobacco and had too little charge.[69] Edward Oxford felt that the attempts were encouraged by his acquittal in 1840. Bean was sentenced to 18 months in jail.[70] In a similar attack in 1849, unemployed Irishman William Hamilton fired a powder-filled pistol at Victoria's carriage as it passed along Constitution Hill, London.[71] In 1850, the Queen did sustain injury when she was assaulted by a possibly insane ex-army officer, Robert Pate. As Victoria was riding in a carriage, Pate struck her with his cane, crushing her bonnet and bruising her forehead. Both Hamilton and Pate were sentenced to seven years' transportation.[72] Melbourne's support in the House of Commons weakened through the early years of Victoria's reign, and in the 1841 general election the Whigs were defeated. Peel became prime minister, and the ladies of the bedchamber most associated with the Whigs were replaced.[73] Victoria cuddling a child next to her Earliest known photograph of Victoria, here with her eldest daughter, c. 1845[74] In 1845, Ireland was hit by a potato blight.[75] In the next four years, over a million Irish people died and another million emigrated in what became known as the Great Famine.[76] In Ireland, Victoria was labelled "The Famine Queen".[77][78] In January 1847 she personally donated £2,000 (equivalent to between £178,000 and £6.5 million in 2016[79]) to the British Relief Association, more than any other individual famine relief donor,[80] and also supported the Maynooth Grant to a Roman Catholic seminary in Ireland, despite Protestant opposition.[81] The story that she donated only £5 in aid to the Irish, and on the same day gave the same amount to Battersea Dogs Home, was a myth generated towards the end of the 19th century.[82] By 1846, Peel's ministry faced a crisis involving the repeal of the Corn Laws. Many Tories—by then known also as Conservatives—were opposed to the repeal, but Peel, some Tories (the free-trade oriented liberal conservative "Peelites"), most Whigs and Victoria supported it. Peel resigned in 1846, after the repeal narrowly passed, and was replaced by Lord John Russell.[83] Queen Victoria's British prime ministers vte Starting Prime Minister (party) 18 April 1835 William Lamb, Viscount Melbourne (Whig) 30 August 1841 Robert Peel (Conservative) 30 June 1846 Lord John Russell (Whig) 23 February 1852 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative) 19 December 1852 George Hamilton-Gordon, Earl of Aberdeen (Peelite) 6 February 1855 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 20 February 1858 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative) 12 June 1859 Henry John Temple, Viscount Palmerston (Liberal) 29 October 1865 Lord John Russell (Liberal) 28 June 1866 Edward Smith-Stanley, Earl of Derby (Conservative) 27 February 1868 Benjamin Disraeli (Conservative) 3 December 1868 William Gladstone (Liberal) 20 February 1874 Benjamin Disraeli [Lord Beaconsfield] (Conservative) 23 April 1880 William Gladstone (Liberal) 23 June 1885 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) 1 February 1886 William Gladstone (Liberal) 25 July 1886 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) 15 August 1892 William Gladstone (Liberal) 5 March 1894 Archibald Primrose, Earl of Rosebery (Liberal) 25 June 1895 Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Marquess of Salisbury (Conservative) See List of prime ministers of Queen Victoria for details of her British and Imperial premiers Internationally, Victoria took a keen interest in the improvement of relations between France and Britain.[84] She made and hosted several visits between the British royal family and the House of Orleans, who were related by marriage through the Coburgs. In 1843 and 1845, she and Albert stayed with King Louis Philippe I at Château d'Eu in Normandy; she was the first British or English monarch to visit a French monarch since the meeting of Henry VIII of England and Francis I of France on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520.[85] When Louis Philippe made a reciprocal trip in 1844, he became the first French king to visit a British sovereign.[86] Louis Philippe was deposed in the revolutions of 1848, and fled to exile in England.[87] At the height of a revolutionary scare in the United Kingdom in April 1848, Victoria and her family left London for the greater safety of Osborne House,[88] a private estate on the Isle of Wight that they had purchased in 1845 and redeveloped.[89] Demonstrations by Chartists and Irish nationalists failed to attract widespread support, and the scare died down without any major disturbances.[90] Victoria's first visit to Ireland in 1849 was a public relations success, but it had no lasting impact or effect on the growth of Irish nationalism.[91] Portrait of the young Queen by Herbert Smith, 1848 Russell's ministry, though Whig, was not favoured by the Queen.[92] She found particularly offensive the Foreign Secretary, Lord Palmerston, who often acted without consulting the Cabinet, the Prime Minister, or the Queen.[93] Victoria complained to Russell that Palmerston sent official dispatches to foreign leaders without her knowledge, but Palmerston was retained in office and continued to act on his own initiative, despite her repeated remonstrances. It was only in 1851 that Palmerston was removed after he announced the British government's approval of President Louis-Napoleon Bonaparte's coup in France without consulting the Prime Minister.[94] The following year, President Bonaparte was declared Emperor Napoleon III, by which time Russell's administration had been replaced by a short-lived minority government led by Lord Derby. Photograph of a seated Victoria, dressed in black, holding an infant with her children and Prince Albert standing around her Albert, Victoria and their nine children, 1857. Left to right: Alice, Arthur, Prince Albert, Albert Edward, Leopold, Louise, Queen Victoria with Beatrice, Alfred, Victoria, and Helena. In 1853, Victoria gave birth to her eighth child, Leopold, with the aid of the new anaesthetic, chloroform. She was so impressed by the relief it gave from the pain of childbirth that she used it again in 1857 at the birth of her ninth and final child, Beatrice, despite opposition from members of the clergy, who considered it against biblical teaching, and members of the medical profession, who thought it dangerous.[95] Victoria may have had postnatal depression after many of her pregnancies.[96] Letters from Albert to Victoria intermittently complain of her loss of self-control. For example, about a month after Leopold's birth Albert complained in a letter to Victoria about her "continuance of hysterics" over a "miserable trifle".[97] In early 1855, the government of Lord Aberdeen, who had replaced Derby, fell amidst recriminations over the poor management of British troops in the Crimean War. Victoria approached both Derby and Russell to form a ministry, but neither had sufficient support, and Victoria was forced to appoint Palmerston as prime minister.[98] Napoleon III, Britain's closest ally as a result of the Crimean War,[96] visited London in April 1855, and from 17 to 28 August the same year Victoria and Albert returned the visit.[99] Napoleon III met the couple at Boulogne and accompanied them to Paris.[100] They visited the Exposition Universelle (a successor to Albert's 1851 brainchild the Great Exhibition) and Napoleon I's tomb at Les Invalides (to which his remains had only been returned in 1840), and were guests of honour at a 1,200-guest ball at the Palace of Versailles.[101] Portrait by Winterhalter, 1859 On 14 January 1858, an Italian refugee from Britain called Felice Orsini attempted to assassinate Napoleon III with a bomb made in England.[102] The ensuing diplomatic crisis destabilised the government, and Palmerston resigned. Derby was reinstated as prime minister.[103] Victoria and Albert attended the opening of a new basin at the French military port of Cherbourg on 5 August 1858, in an attempt by Napoleon III to reassure Britain that his military preparations were directed elsewhere. On her return Victoria wrote to Derby reprimanding him for the poor state of the Royal Navy in comparison to the French Navy.[104] Derby's ministry did not last long, and in June 1859 Victoria recalled Palmerston to office.[105] Eleven days after Orsini's assassination attempt in France, Victoria's eldest daughter married Prince Frederick William of Prussia in London. They had been betrothed since September 1855, when Princess Victoria was 14 years old; the marriage was delayed by the Queen and her husband Albert until the bride was 17.[106] The Queen and Albert hoped that their daughter and son-in-law would be a liberalising influence in the enlarging Prussian state.[107] The Queen felt "sick at heart" to see her daughter leave England for Germany; "It really makes me shudder", she wrote to Princess Victoria in one of her frequent letters, "when I look round to all your sweet, happy, unconscious sisters, and think I must give them up too – one by one."[108] Almost exactly a year later, the Princess gave birth to the Queen's first grandchild, Wilhelm, who would become the last German Emperor. Widowhood Victoria photographed by J. J. E. Mayall, 1860 In March 1861, Victoria's mother died, with Victoria at her side. Through reading her mother's papers, Victoria discovered that her mother had loved her deeply;[109] she was heart-broken, and blamed Conroy and Lehzen for "wickedly" estranging her from her mother.[110] To relieve his wife during her intense and deep grief,[111] Albert took on most of her duties, despite being ill himself with chronic stomach trouble.[112] In August, Victoria and Albert visited their son, Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, who was attending army manoeuvres near Dublin, and spent a few days holidaying in Killarney. In November, Albert was made aware of gossip that his son had slept with an actress in Ireland.[113] Appalled, he travelled to Cambridge, where his son was studying, to confront him.[114] By the beginning of December, Albert was very unwell.[115] He was diagnosed with typhoid fever by William Jenner, and died on 14 December 1861. Victoria was devastated.[116] She blamed her husband's death on worry over the Prince of Wales's philandering. He had been "killed by that dreadful business", she said.[117] She entered a state of mourning and wore black for the remainder of her life. She avoided public appearances and rarely set foot in London in the following years.[118] Her seclusion earned her the nickname "widow of Windsor".[119] Her weight increased through comfort eating, which reinforced her aversion to public appearances.[120] Victoria's self-imposed isolation from the public diminished the popularity of the monarchy, and encouraged the growth of the republican movement.[121] She did undertake her official government duties, yet chose to remain secluded in her royal residences—Windsor Castle, Osborne House, and the private estate in Scotland that she and Albert had acquired in 1847, Balmoral Castle. In March 1864 a protester stuck a notice on the railings of Buckingham Palace that announced "these commanding premises to be let or sold in consequence of the late occupant's declining business".[122] Her uncle Leopold wrote to her advising her to appear in public. She agreed to visit the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society at Kensington and take a drive through London in an open carriage.[123] Victoria and John Brown at Balmoral, 1863. Photograph by G. W. Wilson. Through the 1860s, Victoria relied increasingly on a manservant from Scotland, John Brown.[124] Rumours of a romantic connection and even a secret marriage appeared in print, and some referred to the Queen as "Mrs. Brown".[125] The story of their relationship was the subject of the 1997 movie Mrs. Brown. A painting by Sir Edwin Henry Landseer depicting the Queen with Brown was exhibited at the Royal Academy, and Victoria published a book, Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands, which featured Brown prominently and in which the Queen praised him highly.[126] Palmerston died in 1865, and after a brief ministry led by Russell, Derby returned to power. In 1866, Victoria attended the State Opening of Parliament for the first time since Albert's death.[127] The following year she supported the passing of the Reform Act 1867 which doubled the electorate by extending the franchise to many urban working men,[128] though she was not in favour of votes for women.[129] Derby resigned in 1868, to be replaced by Benjamin Disraeli, who charmed Victoria. "Everyone likes flattery," he said, "and when you come to royalty you should lay it on with a trowel."[130] With the phrase "we authors, Ma'am", he complimented her.[131] Disraeli's ministry only lasted a matter of months, and at the end of the year his Liberal rival, William Ewart Gladstone, was appointed prime minister. Victoria found Gladstone's demeanour far less appealing; he spoke to her, she is thought to have complained, as though she were "a public meeting rather than a woman".[132] In 1870 republican sentiment in Britain, fed by the Queen's seclusion, was boosted after the establishment of the Third French Republic.[133] A republican rally in Trafalgar Square demanded Victoria's removal, and Radical MPs spoke against her.[134] In August and September 1871, she was seriously ill with an abscess in her arm, which Joseph Lister successfully lanced and treated with his new antiseptic carbolic acid spray.[135] In late November 1871, at the height of the republican movement, the Prince of Wales contracted typhoid fever, the disease that was believed to have killed his father, and Victoria was fearful her son would die.[136] As the tenth anniversary of her husband's death approached, her son's condition grew no better, and Victoria's distress continued.[137] To general rejoicing, he recovered.[138] Mother and son attended a public parade through London and a grand service of thanksgiving in St Paul's Cathedral on 27 February 1872, and republican feeling subsided.[139] On the last day of February 1872, two days after the thanksgiving service, 17-year-old Arthur O'Connor, a great-nephew of Irish MP Feargus O'Connor, waved an unloaded pistol at Victoria's open carriage just after she had arrived at Buckingham Palace. Brown, who was attending the Queen, grabbed him and O'Connor was later sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment,[140] and a birching.[141] As a result of the incident, Victoria's popularity recovered further.[142] Empress Wikisource has original text related to this article: Proclamation by the Queen in Council, to the princes, chiefs, and people of India After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the British East India Company, which had ruled much of India, was dissolved, and Britain's possessions and protectorates on the Indian subcontinent were formally incorporated into the British Empire. The Queen had a relatively balanced view of the conflict, and condemned atrocities on both sides.[143] She wrote of "her feelings of horror and regret at the result of this bloody civil war",[144] and insisted, urged on by Albert, that an official proclamation announcing the transfer of power from the company to the state "should breathe feelings of generosity, benevolence and religious toleration".[145] At her behest, a reference threatening the "undermining of native religions and customs" was replaced by a passage guaranteeing religious freedom.[145] Victoria admired Heinrich von Angeli's 1875 portrait of her for its "honesty, total want of flattery, and appreciation of character".[146] In the 1874 general election, Disraeli was returned to power. He passed the Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, which removed Catholic rituals from the Anglican liturgy and which Victoria strongly supported.[147] She preferred short, simple services, and personally considered herself more aligned with the presbyterian Church of Scotland than the episcopal Church of England.[148] Disraeli also pushed the Royal Titles Act 1876 through Parliament, so that Victoria took the title "Empress of India" from 1 May 1876.[149] The new title was proclaimed at the Delhi Durbar of 1 January 1877.[150] On 14 December 1878, the anniversary of Albert's death, Victoria's second daughter Alice, who had married Louis of Hesse, died of diphtheria in Darmstadt. Victoria noted the coincidence of the dates as "almost incredible and most mysterious".[151] In May 1879, she became a great-grandmother (on the birth of Princess Feodora of Saxe-Meiningen) and passed her "poor old 60th birthday". She felt "aged" by "the loss of my beloved child".[152] Between April 1877 and February 1878, she threatened five times to abdicate while pressuring Disraeli to act against Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, but her threats had no impact on the events or their conclusion with the Congress of Berlin.[153] Disraeli's expansionist foreign policy, which Victoria endorsed, led to conflicts such as the Anglo-Zulu War and the Second Anglo-Afghan War. "If we are to maintain our position as a first-rate Power", she wrote, "we must ... be Prepared for attacks and wars, somewhere or other, CONTINUALLY."[154] Victoria saw the expansion of the British Empire as civilising and benign, protecting native peoples from more aggressive powers or cruel rulers: "It is not in our custom to annexe countries", she said, "unless we are obliged & forced to do so."[155] To Victoria's dismay, Disraeli lost the 1880 general election, and Gladstone returned as prime minister.[156] When Disraeli died the following year, she was blinded by "fast falling tears",[157] and erected a memorial tablet "placed by his grateful Sovereign and Friend, Victoria R.I."[158] Later years Victorian farthing, 1884 On 2 March 1882, Roderick Maclean, a disgruntled poet apparently offended by Victoria's refusal to accept one of his poems,[159] shot at the Queen as her carriage left Windsor railway station. Two schoolboys from Eton College struck him with their umbrellas, until he was hustled away by a policeman.[160] Victoria was outraged when he was found not guilty by reason of insanity,[161] but was so pleased by the many expressions of loyalty after the attack that she said it was "worth being shot at—to see how much one is loved".[162] On 17 March 1883, Victoria fell down some stairs at Windsor, which left her lame until July; she never fully recovered and was plagued with rheumatism thereafter.[163] John Brown died 10 days after her accident, and to the consternation of her private secretary, Sir Henry Ponsonby, Victoria began work on a eulogistic biography of Brown.[164] Ponsonby and Randall Davidson, Dean of Windsor, who had both seen early drafts, advised Victoria against publication, on the grounds that it would stoke the rumours of a love affair.[165] The manuscript was destroyed.[166] In early 1884, Victoria did publish More Leaves from a Journal of a Life in the Highlands, a sequel to her earlier book, which she dedicated to her "devoted personal attendant and faithful friend John Brown".[167] On the day after the first anniversary of Brown's death, Victoria was informed by telegram that her youngest son, Leopold, had died in Cannes. He was "the dearest of my dear sons", she lamented.[168] The following month, Victoria's youngest child, Beatrice, met and fell in love with Prince Henry of Battenberg at the wedding of Victoria's granddaughter Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine to Henry's brother Prince Louis of Battenberg. Beatrice and Henry planned to marry, but Victoria opposed the match at first, wishing to keep Beatrice at home to act as her companion. After a year, she was won around to the marriage by their promise to remain living with and attending her.[169] Extent of the British Empire in 1898 Victoria was pleased when Gladstone resigned in 1885 after his budget was defeated.[170] She thought his government was "the worst I have ever had", and blamed him for the death of General Gordon at Khartoum.[171] Gladstone was replaced by Lord Salisbury. Salisbury's government only lasted a few months, however, and Victoria was forced to recall Gladstone, whom she referred to as a "half crazy & really in many ways ridiculous old man".[172] Gladstone attempted to pass a bill granting Ireland home rule, but to Victoria's glee it was defeated.[173] In the ensuing election, Gladstone's party lost to Salisbury's and the government switched hands again. Golden Jubilee The Munshi stands over Victoria as she works at a desk Victoria and the Munshi Abdul Karim In 1887, the British Empire celebrated the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria. She marked the fiftieth anniversary of her accession on 20 June with a banquet to which 50 kings and princes were invited. The following day, she participated in a procession and attended a thanksgiving service in Westminster Abbey.[174] By this time, Victoria was once again extremely popular.[175] Two days later on 23 June,[176] she engaged two Indian Muslims as waiters, one of whom was Abdul Karim. He was soon promoted to "Munshi": teaching her Urdu and acting as a clerk.[177][178][179] Her family and retainers were appalled, and accused Abdul Karim of spying for the Muslim Patriotic League, and biasing the Queen against the Hindus.[180] Equerry Frederick Ponsonby (the son of Sir Henry) discovered that the Munshi had lied about his parentage, and reported to Lord Elgin, Viceroy of India, "the Munshi occupies very much the same position as John Brown used to do."[181] Victoria dismissed their complaints as racial prejudice.[182] Abdul Karim remained in her service until he returned to India with a pension, on her death.[183] Victoria's eldest daughter became empress consort of Germany in 1888, but she was widowed a little over three months later, and Victoria's eldest grandchild became German Emperor as Wilhelm II. Victoria and Albert's hopes of a liberal Germany would go unfulfilled, as Wilhelm was a firm believer in autocracy. Victoria thought he had "little heart or Zartgefühl [tact] – and ... his conscience & intelligence have been completely wharped [sic]".[184] Gladstone returned to power after the 1892 general election; he was 82 years old. Victoria objected when Gladstone proposed appointing the Radical MP Henry Labouchère to the Cabinet, so Gladstone agreed not to appoint him.[185] In 1894, Gladstone retired and, without consulting the outgoing prime minister, Victoria appointed Lord Rosebery as prime minister.[186] His government was weak, and the following year Lord Salisbury replaced him. Salisbury remained prime minister for the remainder of Victoria's reign.[187] Diamond Jubilee Seated Victoria in embroidered and lace dress Victoria in her official Diamond Jubilee photograph by W. & D. Downey On 23 September 1896, Victoria surpassed her grandfather George III as the longest-reigning monarch in British history. The Queen requested that any special celebrations be delayed until 1897, to coincide with her Diamond Jubilee,[188] which was made a festival of the British Empire at the suggestion of the Colonial Secretary, Joseph Chamberlain.[189] The prime ministers of all the self-governing Dominions were invited to London for the festivities.[190] One reason for including the prime ministers of the Dominions and excluding foreign heads of state was to avoid having to invite Victoria's grandson, Wilhelm II of Germany, who, it was feared, might cause trouble at the event.[191] The Queen's Diamond Jubilee procession on 22 June 1897 followed a route six miles long through London and included troops from all over the empire. The procession paused for an open-air service of thanksgiving held outside St Paul's Cathedral, throughout which Victoria sat in her open carriage, to avoid her having to climb the steps to enter the building. The celebration was marked by vast crowds of spectators and great outpourings of affection for the 78-year-old Queen.[192] Queen Victoria in Dublin, 1900 Victoria visited mainland Europe regularly for holidays. In 1889, during a stay in Biarritz, she became the first reigning monarch from Britain to set foot in Spain when she crossed the border for a brief visit.[193] By April 1900, the Boer War was so unpopular in mainland Europe that her annual trip to France seemed inadvisable. Instead, the Queen went to Ireland for the first time since 1861, in part to acknowledge the contribution of Irish regiments to the South African war.[194] Death and succession Portrait by Heinrich von Angeli, 1899 In July 1900, Victoria's second son, Alfred ("Affie"), died. "Oh, God! My poor darling Affie gone too", she wrote in her journal. "It is a horrible year, nothing but sadness & horrors of one kind & another."[195] Following a custom she maintained throughout her widowhood, Victoria spent the Christmas of 1900 at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. Rheumatism in her legs had rendered her disabled, and her eyesight was clouded by cataracts.[196] Through early January, she felt "weak and unwell",[197] and by mid-January she was "drowsy ... dazed, [and] confused".[198] She died on 22 January 1901, at half past six in the evening, at the age of 81.[199] Her son and successor, King Edward VII, and her eldest grandson, Emperor Wilhelm II, were at her deathbed.[200] Her favourite pet Pomeranian, Turi, was laid upon her deathbed as a last request.[201] Poster proclaiming a day of mourning in Toronto on the day of Victoria's funeral In 1897, Victoria had written instructions for her funeral, which was to be military as befitting a soldier's daughter and the head of the army,[96] and white instead of black.[202] On 25 January, Edward, Wilhelm, and her third son, Arthur, helped lift her body into the coffin.[203] She was dressed in a white dress and her wedding veil.[204] An array of mementos commemorating her extended family, friends and servants were laid in the coffin with her, at her request, by her doctor and dressers. One of Albert's dressing gowns was placed by her side, with a plaster cast of his hand, while a lock of John Brown's hair, along with a picture of him, was placed in her left hand concealed from the view of the family by a carefully positioned bunch of flowers.[96][205] Items of jewellery placed on Victoria included the wedding ring of John Brown's mother, given to her by Brown in 1883.[96] Her funeral was held on Saturday 2 February, in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, and after two days of lying-in-state, she was interred beside Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum, Frogmore, at Windsor Great Park.[206] With a reign of 63 years, seven months, and two days, Victoria was the longest-reigning British monarch and the longest-reigning queen regnant in world history, until her great-great-granddaughter Elizabeth II surpassed her on 9 September 2015.[207] She was the last monarch of Britain from the House of Hanover; her son and successor, Edward VII, belonged to her husband's House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. Legacy See also: Cultural depictions of Queen Victoria Victoria smiling Victoria amused. The remark "We are not amused" is attributed to her but there is no direct evidence that she ever said it,[96][208] and she denied doing so.[209] According to one of her biographers, Giles St Aubyn, Victoria wrote an average of 2,500 words a day during her adult life.[210] From July 1832 until just before her death, she kept a detailed journal, which eventually encompassed 122 volumes.[211] After Victoria's death, her youngest daughter, Princess Beatrice, was appointed her literary executor. Beatrice transcribed and edited the diaries covering Victoria's accession onwards, and burned the originals in the process.[212] Despite this destruction, much of the diaries still exist. In addition to Beatrice's edited copy, Lord Esher transcribed the volumes from 1832 to 1861 before Beatrice destroyed them.[213] Part of Victoria's extensive correspondence has been published in volumes edited by A. C. Benson, Hector Bolitho, George Earle Buckle, Lord Esher, Roger Fulford, and Richard Hough among others.[214] Bronze statue of winged victory mounted on a marble four-sided base with a marble figure on each side The Victoria Memorial in front of Buckingham Palace was erected as part of the remodelling of the façade of the Palace a decade after her death. Victoria was physically unprepossessing—she was stout, dowdy and only about five feet (1.5 metres) tall—but she succeeded in projecting a grand image.[215] She experienced unpopularity during the first years of her widowhood, but was well liked during the 1880s and 1890s, when she embodied the empire as a benevolent matriarchal figure.[216] Only after the release of her diary and letters did the extent of her political influence become known to the wider public.[96][217] Biographies of Victoria written before much of the primary material became available, such as Lytton Strachey's Queen Victoria of 1921, are now considered out of date.[218] The biographies written by Elizabeth Longford and Cecil Woodham-Smith, in 1964 and 1972 respectively, are still widely admired.[219] They, and others, conclude that as a person Victoria was emotional, obstinate, honest, and straight-talking.[220] Contrary to popular belief, her staff and family recorded that Victoria "was immensely amused and roared with laughter" on many occasions.[221] Through Victoria's reign, the gradual establishment of a modern constitutional monarchy in Britain continued. Reforms of the voting system increased the power of the House of Commons at the expense of the House of Lords and the monarch.[222] In 1867, Walter Bagehot wrote that the monarch only retained "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[223] As Victoria's monarchy became more symbolic than political, it placed a strong emphasis on morality and family values, in contrast to the sexual, financial and personal scandals that had been associated with previous members of the House of Hanover and which had discredited the monarchy. The concept of the "family monarchy", with which the burgeoning middle classes could identify, was solidified.[224] Descendants and haemophilia Victoria's links with Europe's royal families earned her the nickname "the grandmother of Europe".[225] Of the 42 grandchildren of Victoria and Albert, 34 survived to adulthood. Their living descendants include Elizabeth II; Harald V of Norway; Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden; Margrethe II of Denmark; and Felipe VI of Spain. Victoria's youngest son, Leopold, was affected by the blood-clotting disease haemophilia B and at least two of her five daughters, Alice and Beatrice, were carriers. Royal haemophiliacs descended from Victoria included her great-grandsons, Alexei Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia; Alfonso, Prince of Asturias; and Infante Gonzalo of Spain.[226] The presence of the disease in Victoria's descendants, but not in her ancestors, led to modern speculation that her true father was not the Duke of Kent, but a haemophiliac.[227] There is no documentary evidence of a haemophiliac in connection with Victoria's mother, and as male carriers always had the disease, even if such a man had existed he would have been seriously ill.[228] It is more likely that the mutation arose spontaneously because Victoria's father was over 50 at the time of her conception and haemophilia arises more frequently in the children of older fathers.[229] Spontaneous mutations account for about a third of cases.[230] Namesakes The Victoria Memorial in Kolkata, India Around the world, places and memorials are dedicated to her, especially in the Commonwealth nations. Places named after her include Africa's largest lake, Victoria Falls, the capitals of British Columbia (Victoria) and Saskatchewan (Regina), two Australian states (Victoria and Queensland), and the capital of the island nation of Seychelles. The Victoria Cross was introduced in 1856 to reward acts of valour during the Crimean War,[231] and it remains the highest British, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand award for bravery. Victoria Day is a Canadian statutory holiday and a local public holiday in parts of Scotland celebrated on the last Monday before or on 24 May (Queen Victoria's birthday). Titles, styles, honours, and arms Titles and styles 24 May 1819 – 20 June 1837: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandrina Victoria of Kent 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901: Her Majesty The Queen At the end of her reign, the Queen's full style was: "Her Majesty Victoria, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Queen, Defender of the Faith, Empress of India".[232] Honours British honours Royal Family Order of King George IV, 1826[233] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Star of India, 25 June 1861[234] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Order of Victoria and Albert, 10 February 1862[235] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Crown of India, 1 January 1878[236] Founder and Sovereign of the Order of the Indian Empire, 1 January 1878[237] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Red Cross, 27 April 1883[238] Founder and Sovereign of the Distinguished Service Order, 6 November 1886[239] Albert Medal of the Royal Society of Arts, 1887[240] Founder and Sovereign of the Royal Victorian Order, 23 April 1896[241] Foreign honours Spain: Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa, 21 December 1833[242] Grand Cross of the Order of Charles III[243] Portugal: Dame of the Order of Queen Saint Isabel, 23 February 1836[244] Grand Cross of Our Lady of Conception[243] Russia: Grand Cross of St. Catherine, 26 June 1837[245] France: Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour, 5 September 1843[246] Mexico: Grand Cross of the National Order of Guadalupe, 1854[247] Prussia: Dame of the Order of Louise, 1st Division, 11 June 1857[248] Brazil: Grand Cross of the Order of Pedro I, 3 December 1872[249] Persia:[250] Order of the Sun, 1st Class in Diamonds, 20 June 1873 Order of the August Portrait, 20 June 1873 Siam: Grand Cross of the White Elephant, 1880[251] Dame of the Order of the Royal House of Chakri, 1887[252] Hawaii: Grand Cross of the Order of Kamehameha I, with Collar, July 1881[253] Serbia:[254][255] Grand Cross of the Cross of Takovo, 1882 Grand Cross of the White Eagle, 1883 Grand Cross of St. Sava, 1897 Hesse and by Rhine: Dame of the Golden Lion, 25 April 1885[256] Bulgaria: Order of the Bulgarian Red Cross, August 1887[257] Ethiopia: Grand Cross of the Seal of Solomon, 22 June 1897 – Diamond Jubilee gift[258] Montenegro: Grand Cross of the Order of Prince Danilo I, 1897[259] Saxe-Coburg and Gotha: Silver Wedding Medal of Duke Alfred and duch*ess Marie, 23 January 1899[260] Arms As Sovereign, Victoria used the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom. Before her accession, she received no grant of arms. As she could not succeed to the throne of Hanover, her arms did not carry the Hanoverian symbols that were used by her immediate predecessors. Her arms have been borne by all of her successors on the throne. Outside Scotland, the blazon for the shield—also used on the Royal Standard—is: Quarterly: I and IV, Gules, three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II, Or, a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III, Azure, a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). In Scotland, the first and fourth quarters are occupied by the Scottish lion, and the second by the English lions. The crests, mottoes, and supporters also differ in and outside Scotland. Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (1837-1952).svg Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom in Scotland (1837-1952).svg Royal arms (outside Scotland) Royal arms (in Scotland) Family Victoria's family in 1846 by Franz Xaver Winterhalter. Left to right: Prince Alfred and the Prince of Wales; the Queen and Prince Albert; Princesses Alice, Helena and Victoria. Issue See also: Descendants of Queen Victoria and Royal descendants of Queen Victoria and King Christian IX Name Birth Death Spouse and children[232][261] Victoria, Princess Royal 21 November 1840 5 August 1901 Married 1858, Frederick, later German Emperor and King of Prussia (1831–1888); 4 sons (including Wilhelm II, German Emperor), 4 daughters (including Queen Sophia of Greece) Edward VII of the United Kingdom 9 November 1841 6 May 1910 Married 1863, Princess Alexandra of Denmark (1844–1925); 3 sons (including King George V of the United Kingdom), 3 daughters (including Queen Maud of Norway) Princess Alice 25 April 1843 14 December 1878 Married 1862, Louis IV, Grand Duke of Hesse and by Rhine (1837–1892); 2 sons, 5 daughters (including Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha 6 August 1844 31 July 1900 Married 1874, Grand duch*ess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia (1853–1920); 2 sons (1 stillborn), 4 daughters (including Queen Marie of Romania) Princess Helena 25 May 1846 9 June 1923 Married 1866, Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein (1831–1917); 4 sons (1 stillborn), 2 daughters Princess Louise 18 March 1848 3 December 1939 Married 1871, John Campbell, Marquess of Lorne, later 9th Duke of Argyll (1845–1914); no issue Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn 1 May 1850 16 January 1942 Married 1879, Princess Louise Margaret of Prussia (1860–1917); 1 son, 2 daughters (including Crown Princess Margaret of Sweden) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany 7 April 1853 28 March 1884 Married 1882, Princess Helena of Waldeck and Pyrmont (1861–1922); 1 son, 1 daughter Princess Beatrice 14 April 1857 26 October 1944 Married 1885, Prince Henry of Battenberg (1858–1896); 3 sons, 1 daughter (Queen Victoria Eugenie of Spain) Ancestry Ancestors of Queen Victoria[262] Family tree Red borders indicate British monarchs Bold borders indicate children of British monarchs Family of Queen Victoria, spanning the reigns of her grandfather, George III, to her grandson, George V Notes Her godparents were Tsar Alexander I of Russia (represented by her uncle Frederick, Duke of York), her uncle George, Prince Regent, her aunt Queen Charlotte of Württemberg (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Augusta) and Victoria's maternal grandmother the Dowager duch*ess of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (represented by Victoria's aunt Princess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and Edinburgh). Under section 2 of the Regency Act 1830, the Accession Council's proclamation declared Victoria as the King's successor "saving the rights of any issue of His late Majesty King William the Fourth which may be borne of his late Majesty's Consort". "No. 19509". The London Gazette. 20 June 1837. p. 1581. References Citations Hibbert, pp. 3–12; Strachey, pp. 1–17; Woodham-Smith, pp. 15–29 Hibbert, pp. 12–13; Longford, p. 23; Woodham-Smith, pp. 34–35 Longford, p. 24 Worsley, p. 41. Hibbert, p. 31; St Aubyn, p. 26; Woodham-Smith, p. 81 Hibbert, p. 46; Longford, p. 54; St Aubyn, p. 50; Waller, p. 344; Woodham-Smith, p. 126 Hibbert, p. 19; Marshall, p. 25 Hibbert, p. 27; Longford, pp. 35–38, 118–119; St Aubyn, pp. 21–22; Woodham-Smith, pp. 70–72. The rumours were false in the opinion of these biographers. 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(1998), Victoria's Daughters, New York: St. Martin's Press, ISBN 0-312-24496-7 Potts, D. M.; Potts, W. T. W. (1995), Queen Victoria's Gene: Haemophilia and the Royal Family, Stroud: Alan Sutton, ISBN 0-7509-1199-9 St. Aubyn, Giles (1991), Queen Victoria: A Portrait, London: Sinclair-Stevenson, ISBN 1-85619-086-2 Strachey, Lytton (1921), Queen Victoria, London: Chatto and Windus Waller, Maureen (2006), Sovereign Ladies: The Six Reigning Queens of England, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-6628-2 Weintraub, Stanley (1997), Albert: Uncrowned King, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-5756-9 Woodham-Smith, Cecil (1972), Queen Victoria: Her Life and Times 1819–1861, London: Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 0-241-02200-2 Worsley, Lucy (2018), Queen Victoria – Daughter, Wife, Mother, Widow, London: Hodder & Stoughton Ltd, ISBN 978-1-4736-5138-8 Primary sources Benson, A. C.; Esher, Viscount, eds. (1907), The Letters of Queen Victoria: A Selection of Her Majesty's Correspondence Between the Years 1837 and 1861, London: John Murray Bolitho, Hector, ed. (1938), Letters of Queen Victoria from the Archives of the House of Brandenburg-Prussia, London: Thornton Butterworth Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1926), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 2nd Series 1862–1885, London: John Murray Buckle, George Earle, ed. (1930), The Letters of Queen Victoria, 3rd Series 1886–1901, London: John Murray Connell, Brian (1962), Regina v. Palmerston: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and her Foreign and Prime Minister, 1837–1865, London: Evans Brothers Duff, David, ed. (1968), Victoria in the Highlands: The Personal Journal of Her Majesty Queen Victoria, London: Muller Dyson, Hope; Tennyson, Charles, eds. (1969), Dear and Honoured Lady: The Correspondence between Queen Victoria and Alfred Tennyson, London: Macmillan Esher, Viscount, ed. (1912), The Girlhood of Queen Victoria: A Selection from Her Majesty's Diaries Between the Years 1832 and 1840, London: John Murray Fulford, Roger, ed. (1964), Dearest Child: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Princess Royal, 1858–1861, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1968), Dearest Mama: Letters Between Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1861–1864, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Beloved Mama: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess, 1878–1885, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1971), Your Dear Letter: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, 1863–1871, London: Evans Brothers Fulford, Roger, ed. (1976), Darling Child: Private Correspondence of Queen Victoria and the German Crown Princess of Prussia, 1871–1878, London: Evans Brothers Hibbert, Christopher, ed. (1984), Queen Victoria in Her Letters and Journals, London: John Murray, ISBN 0-7195-4107-7 Hough, Richard, ed. (1975), Advice to a Grand-daughter: Letters from Queen Victoria to Princess Victoria of Hesse, London: Heinemann, ISBN 0-434-34861-9 Jagow, Kurt, ed. (1938), Letters of the Prince Consort 1831–1861, London: John Murray Mortimer, Raymond, ed. (1961), Queen Victoria: Leaves from a Journal, New York: Farrar, Straus & Cudahy Ponsonby, Frederick, ed. (1930), Letters of the Empress Frederick, London: Macmillan Ramm, Agatha, ed. (1990), Beloved and Darling Child: Last Letters between Queen Victoria and Her Eldest Daughter, 1886–1901, Stroud: Sutton Publishing, ISBN 978-0-86299-880-6 Victoria, Queen (1868), Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1848 to 1861, London: Smith, Elder Victoria, Queen (1884), More Leaves from the Journal of Our Life in the Highlands from 1862 to 1882, London: Smith, Elder Further reading Arnstein, Walter L. (2003), Queen Victoria, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 978-0-333-63806-4 Baird, Julia (2016), Victoria The Queen: An Intimate Biography of the Woman Who Ruled an Empire, New York: Random House, ISBN 978-1-4000-6988-0 Cadbury, Deborah (2017), Queen Victoria's Matchmaking: The Royal Marriages That Shaped Europe, Bloomsbury Carter, Sarah; Nugent, Maria Nugent, eds. (2016), Mistress of everything: Queen Victoria in Indigenous worlds, Manchester University Press Eyck, Frank (1959), The Prince Consort: a political biography, Chatto Gardiner, Juliet (1997), Queen Victoria, London: Collins and Brown, ISBN 978-1-85585-469-7 Homans, Margaret; Munich, Adrienne, eds. (1997), Remaking Queen Victoria, Cambridge University Press Homans, Margaret (1997), Royal Representations: Queen Victoria and British Culture, 1837–1876 Hough, Richard (1996), Victoria and Albert, St. Martin's Press, ISBN 978-0-312-30385-3 James, Robert Rhodes (1983), Albert, Prince Consort: A Biography, Hamish Hamilton, ISBN 9780394407630 Kingsley Kent, Susan (2015), Queen Victoria: Gender and Empire Lyden, Anne M. (2014), A Royal Passion: Queen Victoria and Photography, Los Angeles: Getty Publications, ISBN 978-1-60606-155-8 Ridley, Jane (2015), Victoria: Queen, Matriarch, Empress, Penguin Taylor, Miles (2020), "The Bicentenary of Queen Victoria", Journal of British Studies, 59: 121–135, doi:10.1017/jbr.2019.245, S2CID 213433777 Weintraub, Stanley (1987), Victoria: Biography of a Queen, London: HarperCollins, ISBN 978-0-04-923084-2 Wilson, A. N. (2014), Victoria: A Life, London: Atlantic Books, ISBN 978-1-84887-956-0 External links Listen to this article (1 hour and 2 minutes) 1:01:53 Spoken Wikipedia icon This audio file was created from a revision of this article dated 20 July 2014, and does not reflect subsequent edits. (Audio help · More spoken articles) Queen Victoria at Wikipedia's sister projects Media from Commons Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Data from Wikidata Portraits of Queen Victoria at the National Portrait Gallery, London Edit this at Wikidata Queen Victoria's Journals, online from the Royal Archive and Bodleian Library Works by Queen Victoria at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Queen Victoria at Internet Archive Works by Queen Victoria at LibriVox (public domain audiobooks) Newspaper clippings about Queen Victoria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW Queen Victoria House of Hanover Cadet branch of the House of Welf Born: 24 May 1819 Died: 22 January 1901 Regnal titles Preceded by William IV Queen of the United Kingdom 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901 Succeeded by Edward VII Vacant Title last held by Bahadur Shah II as Mughal emperor Empress of India 1 May 1876 – 22 January 1901 vte Queen Victoria Events Coronation Honours Hackpen White Horse Wedding Wedding dress Golden Jubilee Honours Medal Police Medal Clock Tower, Weymouth Clock Tower, Brighton Bust Adelaide Jubilee International Exhibition Diamond Jubilee Honours Medal Jubilee Diamond Jubilee Tower Cherries jubilee Recessional (poem) Cunningham Clock Tower Devonshire House Ball Reign Bedchamber crisis Prime Ministers Edward Oxford Empress of India John William Bean Victorian era Victorian morality Visits to Manchester Foreign visits State funeral Mausoleum Family Albert, Prince Consort (husband) Victoria, Princess Royal (daughter) Edward VII (son) Princess Alice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Alfred, Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (son) Princess Helena of the United Kingdom (daughter) Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll (daughter) Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn (son) Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany (son) Princess Beatrice of the United Kingdom (daughter) Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (father) Princess Victoria of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld (mother) Descendants Royal descendants Princess Feodora of Leiningen (half-sister) Carl, 3rd Prince of Leiningen (half-brother) Early life Kensington System John Conroy Victoire Conroy Louise Lehzen Lady Flora Hastings Charlotte Percy George Davys Legitimacy Honours Places Empire Day Royal Family Order Victoria Day Victoria Day (Scotland) Victoria Cross Victoria (plant) Depictions Film Sixty Years a Queen (1913) Victoria in Dover (1936) Victoria the Great (1937) Sixty Glorious Years (1938) Victoria in Dover (1954) Mrs Brown (1997) The Young Victoria (2009) Victoria & Abdul (2017) The Black Prince (2017) Dolittle (2020) Television Happy and Glorious (1952) Victoria Regina (1961) The Young Victoria (1963) Victoria & Albert (2001) Looking for Victoria (2003) Royal Upstairs Downstairs (2011) Victoria (2016–2019) Stage Victoria and Merrie England (1897) Victoria Regina (1934) I and Albert (1972) Statues and Memorials List of statues London Memorial Statue Square Leeds St Helens Lancaster Bristol Weymouth Chester Reading Liverpool Birmingham Birkenhead Dundee Balmoral cairns Guernsey Isle of Man Valletta Statue Gate Winnipeg Montreal Square Victoria, British Columbia Toronto Regina Bangalore Hong Kong Kolkata Visakhapatnam Penang Sydney Building Square Adelaide Brisbane Melbourne Christchurch Poetry "The Widow at Windsor" (1892) "Recessional" (1897) Songs Victoria Choral Songs Stamps British Penny Black VR official Penny Blue Two penny blue Penny Red Embossed stamps Halfpenny Rose Red Three Halfpence Red Penny Venetian Red Penny Lilac Lilac and Green Issue Jubilee Issue Colonial Chalon head Canada 12d black Canada 2c Large Queen Ceylon Dull Rose India Inverted Head 4 annas Malta Halfpenny Yellow Mauritius "Post Office" stamps Related Osborne House Queen Victoria's journals John Brown Abdul Karim Pets Dash Diamond Crown vte English, Scottish and British monarchs Monarchs of England until 1603 Monarchs of Scotland until 1603 Alfred the Great Edward the Elder Ælfweard Æthelstan Edmund I Eadred Eadwig Edgar the Peaceful Edward the Martyr Æthelred the Unready Sweyn Edmund Ironside cnu*t Harold I Harthacnu*t Edward the Confessor Harold Godwinson Edgar Ætheling William I William II Henry I Stephen Matilda Henry II Henry the Young King Richard I John Henry III Edward I Edward II Edward III Richard II Henry IV Henry V Henry VI Edward IV Edward V Richard III Henry VII Henry VIII Edward VI Jane Mary I and Philip Elizabeth I Kenneth I MacAlpin Donald I Constantine I Áed Giric Eochaid Donald II Constantine II Malcolm I Indulf Dub Cuilén Amlaíb Kenneth II Constantine III Kenneth III Malcolm II Duncan I Macbeth Lulach Malcolm III Donald III Duncan II Edgar Alexander I David I Malcolm IV William I Alexander II Alexander III Margaret John Robert I David II Edward Balliol Robert II Robert III James I James II James III James IV James V Mary I James VI Monarchs of England and Scotland after the Union of the Crowns from 1603 James I and VI Charles I Charles II James II and VII William III and II and Mary II Anne British monarchs after the Acts of Union 1707 Anne George I George II George III George IV William IV Victoria Edward VII George V Edward VIII George VI Elizabeth II Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. vte British princesses The generations indicate descent from George I, who formalised the use of the titles prince and princess for members of the British royal family. Where a princess may have been or is descended from George I more than once, her most senior descent, by which she bore or bears her title, is used. 1st generation Sophia Dorothea, Queen in Prussia 2nd generation Anne, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange Princess Amelia Princess Caroline Mary, Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel Louise, Queen of Denmark and Norway 3rd generation Augusta, duch*ess of Brunswick Princess Elizabeth Princess Louisa Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark and Norway 4th generation Charlotte, Princess Royal and Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia Princess Sophia of Gloucester Princess Caroline of Gloucester 5th generation Princess Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Queen Victoria Augusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 6th generation Victoria, Princess Royal and German Empress Alice, Grand duch*ess of Hesse and by Rhine Princess Helena, Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein Princess Louise, duch*ess of Argyll Princess Beatrice, Princess Henry of Battenberg Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie of Hanover 7th generation Louise, Princess Royal and duch*ess of Fife Princess Victoria Maud, Queen of Norway Marie, Queen of Romania Grand duch*ess Victoria Feodorovna of Russia Princess Alexandra, Princess of Hohenlohe-Langenburg Princess Beatrice, duch*ess of Galliera Margaret, Crown Princess of Sweden Princess Patricia, Lady Patricia Ramsay Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone Princess Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga of Hanover 8th generation Mary, Princess Royal and Countess of Harewood Princess Alexandra, 2nd duch*ess of Fife Princess Maud, Countess of Southesk Princess Sibylla, duch*ess of Västerbotten Princess Caroline Mathilde of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha Frederica, Queen of Greece 9th generation Queen Elizabeth II Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy 10th generation Anne, Princess Royal 11th generation Princess Beatrice, Mrs Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi Princess Eugenie, Mrs Jack Brooksbank Lady Louise Mountbatten-Windsor1 12th generation Princess Charlotte of Cambridge 1 Status debatable; see her article. vte Hanoverian princesses by birth Generations are numbered by descent from the first King of Hanover, George III. 1st generation Charlotte, Queen of Württemberg Princess Augusta Sophia Elizabeth, Landgravine of Hesse-Homburg Princess Mary, duch*ess of Gloucester and Edinburgh Princess Sophia Princess Amelia 2nd generation Charlotte, Princess Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Princess Charlotte of Clarence Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom Princess Elizabeth of Clarence Augusta, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz Princess Mary Adelaide, duch*ess of Teck 3rd generation Princess Frederica, Baroness von Pawel-Rammingen Princess Marie 4th generation Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden Alexandra, Grand duch*ess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin Princess Olga 5th generation Frederica, Queen of the Hellenes 6th generation Princess Marie, Countess von Hochberg Princess Olga Princess Alexandra, Princess of Leiningen Princess Friederike 7th generation Princess Alexandra Princess Eugenia 8th generation Princess Elisabeth Princess Eleonora Princess Sofia Authority control Edit this at Wikidata General ISNI 1 VIAF 1 WorldCat National libraries Norway Spain France (data) Catalonia Germany Italy Israel United States Latvia Japan Czech Republic Australia Greece Korea Croatia Netherlands Poland Sweden Vatican Art galleries and museums Victoria Te Papa (New Zealand) Art research institutes RKD Artists (Netherlands) Artist Names (Getty) Biographical dictionaries Germany Scientific databases CiNii (Japan) Other Faceted Application of Subject Terminology MusicBrainz artist 2 National Archives (US) RISM (France) 1 Social Networks and Archival Context 2 SUDOC (France) 1 Trove (Australia) 1 Categories: Queen Victoria1819 births1901 deathsMonarchs of the United KingdomMonarchs of the Isle of ManHeads of state of CanadaMonarchs of AustraliaHeads of state of New ZealandQueens regnant in the British Isles19th-century British monarchs20th-century British monarchsHouse of HanoverHanoverian princessesHouse of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (United Kingdom)Empresses regnantIndian empressesBritish princesses19th-century diaristsBritish diaristsFounders of English schools and collegesPeople associated with the Royal National College for the BlindPeople from KensingtonBritish people of German descentFemale critics of feminismKnights Grand Cross of the Order of the Immaculate Conception of Vila ViçosaDames of the Order of Saint IsabelGrand Croix of the Légion d'honneurGrand Crosses of the Order of St. SavaRecipients of the Order of the Cross of Takovo The standard circulating coinage of the United Kingdom, British Crown Dependencies and British Overseas Territories is denominated in pennies and pounds sterling (symbol "£"), and ranges in value from one penny sterling to two pounds. Since decimalisation, on 15 February 1971, the pound has been divided into 100 (new) pence. Before decimalisation, twelve pence made a shilling, and twenty shillings made a pound. British coins are minted by the Royal Mint in Llantrisant, Wales. The Royal Mint also commissions the coins' designs. In addition to the circulating coinage, the UK also mints commemorative decimal coins (crowns) in the denomination of five pounds. Ceremonial Maundy money and bullion coinage of gold sovereigns, half sovereigns, and gold and silver Britannia coins are also produced. Some territories outside the United Kingdom, which use the pound sterling, produce their own coinage, with the same denominations and specifications as the UK coinage but with local designs. Currently circulating coinage The current decimal coins consist of one penny and two pence in copper-plated steel, five pence and ten pence in nickel-plated steel, equilateral curve heptagonal twenty pence and fifty pence in cupronickel, and bimetallic one pound and two pound. All circulating coins have an effigy of Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse, and various national and regional designs, and the denomination, on the reverse. All current coins carry an abbreviated Latin inscription whose full form, ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX, translates to "Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen and Defender of the Faith". Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced One penny Queen Elizabeth II Crowned portcullis with chains (1971–2008) Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 20.3 mm 1.52 mm 3.56 g Bronze (97% copper, 2.5% zinc, 0.5% tin) Smooth 1971 1.65 mm Copper-plated steel 1992 Two pence Plume of ostrich feathers within a coronet (1971–2008) Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 25.9 mm 1.85 mm 7.12 g Bronze 1971 2.03 mm Copper-plated steel 1992 Five pence[a] Queen Elizabeth II Crowned thistle (1968–2008) Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 18 mm 1.7 mm 3.25 g Cupronickel (3:1) Milled 1990 1.89 mm Nickel-plated steel 2012 Ten pence[a] Crowned lion (1968–2008) Segment of the Royal Arms (2008–present) 24.5 mm 1.85 mm 6.5 g Cupronickel (3:1) 1992 2.05 mm Nickel-plated steel 2012 Twenty pence Crowned Tudor Rose 21.4 mm 1.7 mm 5 g Cupronickel (5:1) Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1982 Segment of the Royal Arms 2008 Fifty pence[a] Britannia and lion 27.3 mm 1.78 mm 8 g Cupronickel (3:1) Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1997 Various commemorative designs 1998 Segment of the Royal Arms 2008 One pound Queen Elizabeth II Rose, leek, thistle, and shamrock encircled by a coronet 23.03–23.43 mm 2.8 mm 8.75 g Inner: Nickel-plated alloy Outer: Nickel-brass Alternately milled and plain (12-sided) 28 March 2017[1] Two pounds[b] Abstract concentric design representing technological development 28.4 mm 2.5 mm 12 g Inner: Cupronickel Outer: Nickel-brass Milled with variable inscription and/or decoration 1997 (issued 1998) Various commemorative designs 1999 Britannia 2015 The specifications and dates of introduction of the 5p, 10p, and 50p coins refer to the current versions. These coins were originally issued in larger sizes in 1968 and 1969 respectively. This coin was originally issued in a smaller size in a single metal in 1986 for special issues only. It was redesigned as a bi-metallic issue for general circulation in 1997. Production and distribution All genuine UK coins are produced by the Royal Mint. The same coinage is used across the United Kingdom: unlike banknotes, local issues of coins are not produced for different parts of the UK. The pound coin until 2016 was produced in regional designs, but these circulate equally in all parts of the UK (see UK designs, below). Every year, newly minted coins are checked for size, weight, and composition at a Trial of the Pyx. Essentially the same procedure has been used since the 13th century. Assaying is now done by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths on behalf of HM Treasury. The 1p and 2p coins from 1971 are the oldest standard-issue coins still in circulation. Pre-decimal crowns are the oldest coins in general that are still legal tender, although they are in practice never encountered in general circulation.[2] Coins from the British dependencies and territories that use sterling as their currency are sometimes found in change in other jurisdictions. Strictly, they are not legal tender in the United Kingdom; however, since they have the same specifications as UK coins, they are sometimes tolerated in commerce, and can readily be used in vending machines. UK-issued coins are, on the other hand, generally fully accepted and freely mixed in other British dependencies and territories that use the pound. An extensive coinage redesign was commissioned by the Royal Mint in 2005, and new designs were gradually introduced into the circulating British coinage from summer 2008. Except for the £1 coin, the pre-2008 coins remain legal tender and are expected to stay in circulation for the foreseeable future. The estimated volume in circulation as at March 2016 is:[3] Denomination Number of pieces (millions) Face value (£m) Two pounds 479 957.036 One pound 1,671 1,671.328 Fifty pence 1,053 526.153 Twenty-five pence 81 20 Twenty pence 3,004 600.828 Ten pence 1,713 171.312 Five pence 4,075 203.764 Two pence 6,714 134.273 One penny 11,430 114.299 Total 30,139 4,643.658 History of pre-decimal coinage The penny before 1500 See also: Penny (English coin) and Scottish coinage The English silver penny first appeared in the 8th century CE in adoption of Western Europe's Carolingian monetary system wherein 12 pence made a shilling and 20 shillings made a pound. The weight of the English penny was fixed at 22+1⁄2 troy grains (about 1.46 grams) by Offa of Mercia, an 8th-century contemporary of Charlemagne; 240 pennies weighed 5,400 grains or a tower pound (different from the troy pound of 5,760 grains). The silver penny was the only coin minted for 500 years, from c. 780 to 1280. From the time of Charlemagne until the 12th century, the silver currency of England was made from the highest purity silver available. But there were disadvantages to minting currency of fine silver, notably the level of wear it suffered, and the ease with which coins could be "clipped", or trimmed. In 1158 a new standard for English coinage was established by Henry II with the "Tealby Penny" — the sterling silver standard of 92.5% silver and 7.5% copper. This was a harder-wearing alloy, yet it was still a rather high grade of silver. It went some way towards discouraging the practice of "clipping", though this practice was further discouraged and largely eliminated with the introduction of the milled edge seen on coins today. The weight of a silver penny stayed constant at above 22 grains until 1344; afterwards its weight was reduced to 18 grains in 1351, to 15 grains in 1412, to 12 grains in 1464, and to 101⁄2 grains in 1527. The history of the Royal Mint stretches back to AD 886.[4] For many centuries production was in London, initially at the Tower of London, and then at premises nearby in Tower Hill in what is today known as Royal Mint Court. In the 1970s production was transferred to Llantrisant in South Wales.[5] Historically Scotland and England had separate coinage; the last Scottish coins were struck in 1709 shortly after union with England.[6] The penny after 1500 During the reign of Henry VIII, the silver content was gradually debased, reaching a low of one-third silver. However, in Edward VI's reign in 1551, this debased coinage was discontinued in favor of a return to sterling silver with the penny weighing 8 grains. The first crowns and half-crowns were produced that year. From this point onwards till 1920, sterling was the rule. Coins were originally hand-hammered — an ancient technique in which two dies are struck together with a blank coin between them. This was the traditional method of manufacturing coins in the Western world from the classical Greek era onwards, in contrast with Asia, where coins were traditionally cast. Milled (that is, machine-made) coins were produced first during the reign of Elizabeth I (1558–1603) and periodically during the subsequent reigns of James I and Charles I, but there was initially opposition to mechanisation from the moneyers, who ensured that most coins continued to be produced by hammering. All British coins produced since 1662 have been milled. By 1601 it was decreed that one troy ounce or 480 grains of sterling silver be minted into 62 pennies (i.e. each penny weighed 7.742 grains). By 1696, the currency had been seriously weakened by an increase in clipping during the Nine Years' War[7] to the extent that it was decided to recall and replace all hammered silver coinage in circulation.[8] The exercise came close to disaster due to fraud and mismanagement,[9] but was saved by the personal intervention of Isaac Newton after his appointment as Warden of the Mint, a post which was intended to be a sinecure, but which he took seriously.[8] Newton was subsequently given the post of Master of the Mint in 1699. Following the 1707 union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, Newton used his previous experience to direct the 1707–1710 Scottish recoinage, resulting in a common currency for the new Kingdom of Great Britain. After 15 September 1709 no further silver coins were ever struck in Scotland.[10] As a result of a report written by Newton on 21 September 1717 to the Lords Commissioners of His Majesty's Treasury[11] the bimetallic relationship between gold coins and silver coins was changed by Royal proclamation on 22 December 1717, forbidding the exchange of gold guineas for more than 21 silver shillings.[12] Due to differing valuations in other European countries this unintentionally resulted in a silver shortage, as silver coins were used to pay for imports, while exports were paid for in gold, effectively moving Britain from the silver standard to its first gold standard, rather than the bimetallic standard implied by the proclamation. The coinage reform of 1816 set up a weight/value ratio and physical sizes for silver coins. Each troy ounce of sterling silver was henceforth minted into 66 pence or 51⁄2 shillings. In 1920, the silver content of all British coins was reduced from 92.5% to 50%, with some of the remainder consisting of manganese, which caused the coins to tarnish to a very dark colour after they had been in circulation for long. Silver was eliminated altogether in 1947, except for Maundy coinage, which returned to the pre-1920 92.5% silver composition. The 1816 weight/value ratio and size system survived the debasem*nt of silver in 1920, and the adoption of token coins of cupronickel in 1947. It even persisted after decimalisation for those coins which had equivalents and continued to be minted with their values in new pence. The UK finally abandoned it in 1992 when smaller, more convenient, "silver" coins were introduced. History of decimal coinage Decimalisation Since decimalisation on 15 February 1971 the pound (symbol "£") has been divided into 100 pence. (Prior to decimalisation the pound was divided into 20 shillings, each of 12 [old] pence; thus, there were 240 [old] pence to the pound). The pound remained as Britain's currency unit after decimalisation (unlike in many other British commonwealth countries, which dropped the pound upon decimalisation by introducing dollars or new units worth 10 shillings or 1⁄2 pound). The following coins were introduced with these reverse designs: Half penny, 1971–1984: A crown, symbolising the monarch. One penny, 1971–2007: A crowned portcullis with chains (the badge of the Houses of Parliament). Two pence, 1971–2007: The Prince of Wales's feathers: a plume of ostrich feathers within a coronet. Five pence, 1968–2007: The Badge of Scotland, a thistle royally crowned. Ten pence, 1968–2007: The lion of England royally crowned. Fifty pence, 1969–2007: Britannia and lion. The first decimal coins – the five pence (5p) and ten pence (10p) — were introduced in 1968 in the run-up to decimalisation in order to familiarise the public with the new system. These initially circulated alongside the pre-decimal coinage and had the same size and value as the existing one shilling and two shilling coins respectively. The fifty pence (50p) coin followed in 1969, replacing the old ten shilling note. The remaining decimal coins – at the time, the half penny (1⁄2p), penny (1p) and two pence (2p) — were issued in 1971 at decimalisation. A quarter-penny coin, to be struck in aluminium, was proposed at the time decimalisation was being planned, but was never minted. The new coins were initially marked with the wording NEW PENNY (singular) or NEW PENCE (plural). The word "new" was dropped in 1982. The symbol "p" was adopted to distinguish the new pennies from the old, which used the symbol "d" (from the Latin denarius, a coin used in the Roman Empire). Updates 1982–1998 In the years since decimalisation, a number of changes have been made to the coinage; these new denominations were introduced with the following designs: Twenty pence, 1982–2007: A crowned Tudor Rose, a traditional heraldic emblem of England (NB With incuse design and lettering). One pound, 1983–2016: various designs; see One pound (British coin). Two pounds, 1997–2014: An abstract design of concentric circles, representing technological development from the Iron Age to the modern day electronic age. Additionally: The halfpenny was discontinued in 1984. The composition of the 1p and 2p was changed in 1992 from bronze to copper-plated steel without changing the design. The sizes of the 5p, 10p and 50p coins were reduced in 1990, 1992 and 1997, respectively, also without changing the design. The twenty pence (20p) coin was introduced in 1982 to fill the gap between the 10p and 50p coins. The pound coin (£1) was introduced in 1983 to replace the Bank of England £1 banknote which was discontinued in 1984 (although the Scottish banks continued producing them for some time afterwards; the last of them, the Royal Bank of Scotland £1 note, is still issued in a small volume as of 2021). The designs on the £1 coin changed annually in a largely five-year cycle, until the introduction of the new 12-sided £1 coin in 2017. The decimal halfpenny coin was demonetised in 1984 as its value was by then too small to be useful. The pre-decimal sixpence, shilling and two shilling coins, which had continued to circulate alongside the decimal coinage with values of 2+1⁄2p, 5p and 10p respectively, were finally withdrawn in 1980, 1990 and 1993 respectively. The double florin and crown, with values of 20p and 25p respectively, have technically not been withdrawn, but in practice are never seen in general circulation. In the 1990s, the Royal Mint reduced the sizes of the 5p, 10p, and 50p coins. As a consequence, the oldest 5p coins in circulation date from 1990, the oldest 10p coins from 1992 and the oldest 50p coins come from 1997. Since 1997, many special commemorative designs of 50p have been issued. Some of these are found fairly frequently in circulation and some are rare. They are all legal tender. In 1992 the composition of the 1p and 2p coins was changed from bronze to copper-plated steel. Due to their high copper content (97%), the intrinsic value of pre-1992 1p and 2p coins increased with the surge in metal prices of the mid-2000s, until by 2006 the coins would, if melted down, have been worth about 50% more than their face value.[13] (To do this, however, would be illegal, and they would have had to be melted in huge quantities, using quite a bit of energy, to achieve significant gain.) In later years, the price of copper fell considerably.[citation needed] A circulating bimetallic two pound (£2) coin was introduced in 1998 (first minted in, and dated, 1997). There had previously been unimetallic commemorative £2 coins which did not normally circulate. This tendency to use the two pound coin for commemorative issues has continued since the introduction of the bimetallic coin, and a few of the older unimetallic coins have since entered circulation. There are also commemorative issues of crowns. Until 1981, these had a face value of twenty-five pence (25p), equivalent to the five shilling crown used in pre-decimal Britain. However, in 1990 crowns were redenominated with a face value of five pounds (£5)[14] as the previous value was considered not sufficient for such a high-status coin. The size and weight of the coin remained exactly the same. Decimal crowns are generally not found in circulation as their market value is likely to be higher than their face value, but they remain legal tender. Obverse designs All modern British coins feature a profile of the current monarch's head on the obverse. There has been only one monarch since decimalisation, Queen Elizabeth II, so her head appears on all decimal coins, facing to the right (see also Monarch's head, above). However, five different effigies have been used, reflecting the Queen's changing appearance as she has aged. These are the effigies by Mary Gillick (until 1968), Arnold Machin (1968–1984), Raphael Maklouf (1985–1997), Ian Rank-Broadley (1998–2015), and Jody Clark (from 2015).[15] All current coins carry a Latin inscription whose full form is ELIZABETH II DEI GRATIA REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATRIX, meaning "Elizabeth II, by the grace of God, Queen and Defender of the Faith". The inscription appears on the coins in any of several abbreviated forms, typically ELIZABETH II D G REG F D. 2008 redesign In 2008, UK coins underwent an extensive redesign which eventually changed the reverse designs of all coins, the first wholesale change to British coinage since the first decimal coins were introduced in April 1968.[16] The major design feature was the introduction of a reverse design shared across six coins (1p, 2p, 5p, 10p, 20p, 50p), that can be pieced together to form an image of the Royal Shield. This was the first time a coin design had been featured across multiple coins in this way.[16]To summarize the reverse design changes made in 2008 and afterwards: The 1p coin depicts the lower part of the first quarter and the upper part of the third quarter of the shield, showing the lions passant of England and the harp of Ireland respectively The 2p coin depicts most of the second quarter of the shield, showing the lion rampant of Scotland The 5p coin depicts the centre of the shield, showing the meeting and parts of the constituent parts of the shield The 10p coin depicts most of the first quarter of the shield, containing the three lions passant of England The 20p coin depicts the lower part of the second quarter and upper part of the fourth quarter, showing the lion rampant of Scotland and the lions passant of England respectively The 50p coin depicts the point of the shield and the bottom portions of the second and third quarters showing the harp of Ireland and lions passant of England respectively The round, nickel-brass £1 coin from 2008–2016 depicted the whole of the Royal Shield. From 2017 it was changed to a bimetallic 12-sided coin depicting a rose, leek, thistle and shamrock bound by a crown. The £2 coin from 2015 depicts Britannia. The original intention was to exclude both the £1 and £2 coins from the redesign because they were "relatively new additions" to the coinage, but it was later decided to include a £1 coin with a complete Royal Shield design from 2008 to 2016,[17] and the 2015 redesign of the £2 coin occurred due to complaints over the disappearance of Britannia's image from the 50p coin in 2008.[18] On all coins, the beading (ring of small dots) around the edge of the obverses has been removed. The obverse of the 20p coin has also been amended to incorporate the year, which had been on the reverse of the coin since its introduction in 1982 (giving rise to an unusual issue of a mule version without any date at all). The orientation of both sides of the 50p coin has been rotated through 180 degrees, meaning the bottom of the coin is now a corner rather than a flat edge. The numerals showing the decimal value of each coin, previously present on all coins except the £1 and £2, have been removed, leaving the values spelled out in words only. The redesign was the result of a competition launched by the Royal Mint in August 2005, which closed on 14 November 2005. The competition was open to the public and received over 4,000 entries.[16] The winning entry was unveiled on 2 April 2008, designed by Matthew Dent.[16] The Royal Mint stated the new designs were "reflecting a twenty-first century Britain". An advisor to the Royal Mint described the new coins as "post-modern" and said that this was something that could not have been done 50 years previously.[19] The redesign was criticised by some for having no specifically Welsh symbol (such as the Welsh Dragon), because the Royal Shield does not include a specifically Welsh symbol. Wrexham Member of Parliament (MP) Ian Lucas, who was also campaigning to have the Welsh Dragon included on the Union Flag, called the omission "disappointing", and stated that he would be writing to the Queen to request that the Royal Standard be changed to include Wales.[20] The Royal Mint stated that "the Shield of the Royal Arms is symbolic of the whole of the United Kingdom and as such, represents Wales, Scotland, England and Northern Ireland."[20] Designer Dent stated "I am a Welshman and proud of it, but I never thought about the fact we did not have a dragon or another representation of Wales on the design because as far as I am concerned Wales is represented on the Royal Arms. This was never an issue for me."[20] The Royal Mint's choice of an inexperienced coin designer to produce the new coinage was criticised by Virginia Ironside, daughter of Christopher Ironside who designed the previous UK coins. She stated that the new designs were "totally unworkable as actual coins", due to the loss of a numerical currency identifier, and the smaller typeface used.[21] The German news magazine Der Spiegel claimed that the redesign signalled the UK's intention "not to join the euro any time soon".[22] Changes after 2008 As of 2012, 5p and 10p coins have been issued in nickel-plated steel, and much of the remaining cupronickel types withdrawn, in order to retrieve more expensive metals. The new coins are 11% thicker to maintain the same weight.[23][24] There are heightened nickel allergy concerns over the new coins. Studies commissioned by the Royal Mint found no increased discharge of nickel from the coins when immersed in artificial sweat. However, an independent study found that the friction from handling results in four times as much nickel exposure as from the older-style coins. Sweden already plans to desist from using nickel in coins from 2015.[25] In 2016, the £1 coin's composition was changed from a single-metal round shape to a 12-sided bi-metal design, with a slightly larger diameter, and with multiple past designs discontinued in favor of a single, unchanging design. Production of the new coins started in 2016,[26] with the first, dated 2016, entering circulation 28 March 2017.[27] In February 2015, the Royal Mint announced a new design for the £2 coin featuring Britannia by Antony Dufort, with no change to its bimetallic composition.[28] Edge inscriptions on British coins used to be commonly encountered on round £1 coins of 1983–2016, but are nowadays found only on £2 coins. The standard-issue £2 coin from 1997 to 2015 carried the edge inscription STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS. The redesigned coin since 2015 has a new edge inscription QUATUOR MARIA VINDICO, Latin for "I will claim the four seas", an inscription previously found on coins bearing the image of Britannia. Other commemorative £2 coins have their own unique edge inscriptions or designs. Obsolete denominations The following decimal coins have been withdrawn from circulation and have ceased to be legal tender. Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced Withdrawn Half Penny Queen Elizabeth II St Edward's Crown 17.4 mm 1 mm 1.78 g Bronze Smooth 1971 1984 Five pence* Queen Elizabeth II Crowned Thistle 23.59 mm 1.7 mm 5.65 g Cupronickel Milled 1968 1990 Ten pence* Crowned Lion 28.5 mm 1.85 mm 11.31 g 1992 Fifty pence* Seated Britannia alongside a Lion 30.0 mm 2.5 mm 13.5 g Smooth, Reuleaux heptagon 1969 1997 Various commemorative designs 1973 One Pound† Queen Elizabeth II Numerous different designs 22.5 mm 3.15 mm 9.5 g Nickel-brass Milled with variable inscription and/or decoration 1983 15 October 2017 Royal Shield 2008 Two pounds No standard reverse design 28.4 mm ~3 mm 15.98 g Nickel-brass 1986 1998 * The specifications and dates of 5p, 10p, and 50p coins refer to the larger sizes issued since 1968. † The specification refers to the round coin issued from 1983–2016. Although obsolete, this coin is still redeemable at banks and the British railway systems, and is still legal tender on the Isle of Man. Commemorative issues Circulating commemorative designs Circulating fifty pence and two pound coins have been issued with various commemorative reverse designs, typically to mark the anniversaries of historical events or the births of notable people. Three commemorative designs were issued of the large version of the 50p: in 1973 (the EEC), 1992–3 (EC presidency) and 1994 (D-Day anniversary). Commemorative designs of the smaller 50p coin have been issued (alongside the Britannia standard issue) in 1998 (two designs), 2000, and from 2003 to 2007 yearly (two designs in 2006). For a complete list, see Fifty pence (British decimal coin). Prior to 1997, the two pound coin was minted in commemorative issues only – in 1986, 1989, 1994, 1995 and 1996. Commemorative £2 coins have been regularly issued since 1999, alongside the standard-issue bi-metallic coins which were introduced in 1997. One or two designs have been minted each year, with the exception of none in 2000, and four regional 2002 issues marking the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester. As well as a distinct reverse design, these coins have an edge inscription relevant to the subject. The anniversary themes are continued until at least 2009, with two designs announced. For a complete list, see Two pounds (British decimal coin). From 2018–2019 a series of 10p coins with 26 different designs was put in circulation "celebrating Great Britain with The Royal Mint’s Quintessentially British A to Z series of coins".[29] Non-circulating denominations 1981 commemorative twenty-five pence coin, celebrating the marriage of Prince Charles and Lady Diana Spencer. The following are special-issue commemorative coins, seldom encountered in normal circulation due to their precious metal content or collectible value, but are still considered legal tender. Twenty-five pence or crown (25p; £0.25), 1972–1981 Five pounds or crown (£5), 1990–present [1] Twenty pounds (£20), 2013–present Fifty pounds (£50), 2015–2016 One hundred pounds (£100), 2015–2016 Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced 25 pence Queen Elizabeth II No standard reverse design 38.61 mm 2.89 mm 28.28 g Cupronickel or silver Milled, with variable inscription 1972 5 pounds 1990 20 pounds 27.0 mm Unknown 15.71 g Silver Milled 2013 50 pounds Britannia 34.0 mm 31 g 2015 100 pounds Elizabeth Tower 'Big Ben' 40.0 mm 62.86 g Legal tender status of commemorative coins The prolific issuance since 2013 of silver commemorative £20, £50 and £100 coins at face value has led to attempts to spend or deposit these coins, prompting the Royal Mint to clarify the legal tender status of these silver coins as well as the cupronickel £5 coin.[30][31][32] Royal Mint guidelines advise that, although these coins were approved as legal tender, they are considered limited edition collectables not intended for general circulation, and hence shops and banks are not obliged to accept them. Maundy money Maundy money is a ceremonial coinage traditionally given to the poor, and nowadays awarded annually to deserving senior citizens. There are Maundy coins in denominations of one, two, three and four pence. They bear dates from 1822 to the present and are minted in very small quantities. Though they are legal tender in the UK, they are rarely or never encountered in circulation. The pre-decimal Maundy pieces have the same legal tender status and value as post-decimal ones, and effectively increased in face value by 140% upon decimalisation. Their numismatic value is much greater. Maundy coins still bear the original portrait of the Queen as used in the circulating coins of the first years of her reign. Bullion coinage The traditional bullion coin issued by Britain is the gold sovereign, formerly a circulating coin worth 20 shillings (or one pound) and with 0.23542 troy ounces (7.322 g) of fine gold, but now with a nominal value of one pound. The Royal Mint continues to produce sovereigns, as well as quarter sovereigns (introduced in 2009), half sovereigns, double sovereigns and quintuple sovereigns. Between 1987 and 2012 a series of bullion coins, the Britannia, was issued, containing 1 troy ounce (31.1 g), 1⁄2 ounce, 1⁄4 ounce and 1⁄10 ounce of fine gold at a millesimal fineness of 916 (22 carat) and with face values of £100, £50, £25, and £10. Since 2013 Britannia bullion contains 1 troy ounce of fine gold at a millesimal fineness of 999 (24 carat). Between 1997 and 2012 silver bullion coins have also been produced under the name "Britannias". The alloy used was Britannia silver (millesimal fineness 958). The silver coins were available in 1 troy ounce (31.1 g), 1⁄2 ounce, 1⁄4 ounce and 1⁄10 ounce sizes. Since 2013 the alloy used is silver at a (millesimal fineness 999). In 2016 the Royal Mint launched a series of 10 Queen's Beasts bullion coins,[33] one for each beast available in both gold and silver. The Royal Mint also issues silver, gold and platinum proof sets of the circulating coins, as well as gift products such as gold coins set into jewellery. Non-UK coinage The British Islands (red) and overseas territories (blue) using the Pound or their local issue. Outside the United Kingdom, the British Crown Dependencies of Jersey and Guernsey use the pound sterling as their currencies. However, they produce local issues of coinage in the same denominations and specifications, but with different designs. These circulate freely alongside UK coinage and English, Northern Irish, and Scottish banknotes within these territories, but must be converted in order to be used in the UK. The island of Alderney also produces occasional commemorative coins. (See coins of the Jersey pound, coins of the Guernsey pound, and Alderney pound for details.). The Isle of Man is a unique case among the Crown Dependencies, issuing its own currency, the Manx pound.[citation needed] While the Isle of Man recognises the Pound Sterling as a secondary currency, coins of the Manx pound are not legal tender in the UK. The pound sterling is also the official currency of the British overseas territories of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands,[34] British Antarctic Territory[35] and Tristan da Cunha.[36] South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands produces occasional special collectors' sets of coins.[37] In 2008, British Antarctic Territory issued a £2 coin commemorating the centenary of Britain's claim to the region.[38] The currencies of the British overseas territories of Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands and Saint Helena/Ascension — namely the Gibraltar pound, Falkland Islands pound and Saint Helena pound — are pegged one-to-one to the pound sterling but are technically separate currencies. These territories issue their own coinage, again with the same denominations and specifications as the UK coinage but with local designs, as coins of the Gibraltar pound, coins of the Falkland Islands pound and coins of the Saint Helena pound. The other British overseas territories do not use sterling as their official currency. Pre-decimal coinage Half crown, 1953 Two shilling coin, or florin, 1949 Shilling, 1956, showing English and Scottish reverses For further information about the history of pre-decimal coinage, see Pound sterling and Decimal Day. System Before decimalisation in 1971, the pound was divided into 240 pence rather than 100, though it was rarely expressed in this way. Rather it was expressed in terms of pounds, shillings and pence, where: £1 = 20 shillings (20s). 1 shilling = 12 pence (12d). Thus: £1 = 240d. The penny was further subdivided at various times, though these divisions vanished as inflation made them irrelevant: 1 penny = 2 halfpennies and (earlier) 4 farthings (half farthing, a third of a farthing, and quarter farthing coins were minted in the late 19th century, and into the early 20th century in the case of the third farthing, but circulated only in certain British colonies and not in the UK). Using the example of five shillings and sixpence, the standard ways of writing shillings and pence were: 5s 6d 5/6 5/- for 5 shillings only, with the dash to stand for zero pennies. The sum of 5/6 would be spoken as "five shillings and sixpence" or "five and six". The abbreviation for the old penny, d, was derived from the Roman denarius, and the abbreviation for the shilling, s, from the Roman solidus. The shilling was also denoted by the slash symbol, also called a solidus for this reason, which was originally an adaptation of the long s.[39] The symbol "£", for the pound, is derived from the first letter of the Latin word for pound, libra.[40] A similar pre-decimal system operated in France, also based on the Roman currency, consisting of the livre (L), sol or sou (s) and denier (d). Until 1816 another similar system was used in the Netherlands, consisting of the gulden (G), stuiver (s; 1⁄20 G) and duit, (d; 1⁄8 s or 1⁄160 G). Denominations For an extensive list of historical pre-decimal coin denominations, see List of British banknotes and coins. In the years just prior to decimalisation, the circulating British coins were: Denomination Obverse Reverse Diameter Thickness Mass Composition Edge Introduced Withdrawn Farthing (1⁄4d) Various Monarchs Wren (Britannia on early mintages) 20.19 mm 2.83 g Bronze Smooth 1860 1961 Half penny (1⁄2d) Golden Hind (Britannia on early mintages) 25.48 mm 5.67 g 1969 Penny (1d) Britannia 31 mm 9.45 g 1971 Threepence (3d) King George VI 1937–1952 Queen Elizabeth II 1953–1971 Thrift until 1952 Crowned portcullis with chains 21.0–21.8 mm 2.5 mm 6.8 g Nickel-brass Plain (12-sided) 1937 1971 Sixpence (6d) King George VI 1946–1952 Queen Elizabeth II 1953–1971 Crowned royal cypher until 1952 Floral design – Four Home Nations 19.41 mm 2.83 g Cupronickel Milled 1947 1980 Shilling (1/-) Crowned lion on Tudor crown or Crowned lion standing on Scottish crown until 1952 Coat of Arms of England or Scotland 23.60 mm 1.7 mm 5.66 g 1990 Florin (2/-) Crowned rose flanked by a thistle and shamrock until 1952 Rose encircled by thistle, leek and shamrock 28.5 mm 1.85 mm 11.31 g 1992 Half crown (2/6) Royal Shield flanked by crowned royal cypher until 1952 Crowned Royal Shield 32.31 mm 14.14 g 1969 Crown (5/-) Various commemorative designs 38 mm 2.89 mm 28.28 g 1951 Present The farthing (1⁄4d) had been demonetised on 1 January 1961, whilst the crown (5/-) was issued periodically as a commemorative coin but rarely found in circulation. The crown, half crown, florin, shilling, and sixpence were cupronickel coins (in historical times silver or silver alloy); the penny, halfpenny, and farthing were bronze; and the threepence was a twelve-sided nickel-brass coin (historically it was a small silver coin). Some of the pre-decimalisation coins with exact decimal equivalent values continued in use after 1971 alongside the new coins, albeit with new names (the shilling became equivalent to the 5p coin, with the florin equating to 10p), and the others were withdrawn almost immediately. The use of florins and shillings as legal tender in this way ended in 1991 and 1993 when the 5p and 10p coins were replaced with smaller versions. Indeed, while pre-decimalisation shillings were used as 5p coins, for a while after decimalisation many people continued to call the new 5p coin a shilling, since it remained 1⁄20 of a pound, but was now counted as 5p (five new pence) instead of 12d (twelve old pennies). The pre-decimalisation sixpence, also known as a sixpenny bit or sixpenny piece, was equivalent to 2+1⁄2p, but was demonetised in 1980. Pre-decimal coins of the pound sterling Five pounds Double sovereign Sovereign Crown Half crown Florin Shilling Sixpence Groat Threepence Penny Halfpenny Farthing Half farthing Third farthing Quarter farthing 1887 Millennium: 2nd millennium Centuries: 18th century 19th century 20th century Decades: 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s 1900s Years: 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1887 in topic Humanities Archaeology – Architecture – Art Film - Literature – Music - (jazz) By country Australia – Belgium – Brazil – Bulgaria – Canada – Denmark – France – Germany – Mexico – New Zealand – Norway – Philippines – Portugal – Russia – South Africa – Spain – Sweden – United Kingdom – United States – Venezuela Other topics Rail transport – Science – Sports Lists of leaders Sovereign states – State leaders – Territorial governors – Religious leaders Birth and death categories Births – Deaths Establishments and disestablishments categories Establishments – Disestablishments Works category Works 1887 in various calendarsGregorian calendar 1887 MDCCCLXXXVII Ab urbe condita 2640 Armenian calendar 1336 ԹՎ ՌՅԼԶ Assyrian calendar 6637 Baháʼí calendar 43–44 Balinese saka calendar 1808–1809 Bengali calendar 1294 Berber calendar 2837 British Regnal year 50 Vict. 1 – 51 Vict. 1 Buddhist calendar 2431 Burmese calendar 1249 Byzantine calendar 7395–7396 Chinese calendar 丙戌年 (Fire Dog) 4583 or 4523 — to — 丁亥年 (Fire Pig) 4584 or 4524 Coptic calendar 1603–1604 Discordian calendar 3053 Ethiopian calendar 1879–1880 Hebrew calendar 5647–5648 Hindu calendars - Vikram Samvat 1943–1944 - Shaka Samvat 1808–1809 - Kali Yuga 4987–4988 Holocene calendar 11887 Igbo calendar 887–888 Iranian calendar 1265–1266 Islamic calendar 1304–1305 Japanese calendar Meiji 20 (明治20年) Javanese calendar 1816–1817 Julian calendar Gregorian minus 12 days Korean calendar 4220 Minguo calendar 25 before ROC 民前25年 Nanakshahi calendar 419 Thai solar calendar 2429–2430 Tibetan calendar 阳火狗年 (male Fire-Dog) 2013 or 1632 or 860 — to — 阴火猪年 (female Fire-Pig) 2014 or 1633 or 861 Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1887. 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1887th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 887th year of the 2nd millennium, the 87th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1887, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923. Contents 1 Events 2 Births 3 Deaths 4 References Events January–March January 11 – Louis Pasteur's anti-rabies treatment is defended in the Académie Nationale de Médecine, by Dr. Joseph Grancher. January 20 The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.[1] British emigrant ship Kapunda sinks after a collision off the coast of Brazil, killing 303 with only 16 survivors.[2] January 21 The Amateur Athletic Union (AAU) is formed in the United States. Brisbane receives a one-day rainfall of 465 millimetres (18.3 in) (a record for any Australian capital city). January 24 – Battle of Dogali: Abyssinian troops defeat the Italians. January 28 In a snowstorm at Fort Keogh, Montana, the largest snowflakes on record are reported. They are 15 inches (38 cm) wide and 8 inches (20 cm) thick. Construction work begins on the foundations of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.[3] February 2 – The first Groundhog Day is observed in Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania.[4] February 4 – The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887, passed by the 49th United States Congress, is signed into law by President Grover Cleveland.[5] February 5 – The Giuseppe Verdi opera Otello premieres at La Scala, Milan. February 8 – The Dawes Act, or the General Allotment Act, is enacted in the United States.[6] February 23 – The French Riviera is hit by a large earthquake, killing around 2,000 along the coast of the Mediterranean. February 26 – At the Sydney Cricket Ground, George Lohmann becomes the first bowler to take eight wickets, in a Test innings. March 3 – Anne Sullivan begins teaching Helen Keller. March 3: Helen Keller and Sullivan. March 7 – North Carolina State University is established, as North Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. March 13 – Chester Greenwood patents earmuffs in the United States. April–June April 1 – The final of the first All-Ireland Hurling Championship is held.[7] April 4 – Argonia, Kansas, elects Susanna M. Salter as the first female mayor in the United States.[8] April 10 (Easter Sunday) – The Catholic University of America is founded in Washington, D.C. April 20 – Occidental College is founded in Los Angeles, California. April 21 – Schnaebele incident: A French/German border incident nearly leads to war between the two countries.[9] May 3 – An earthquake hits Sonora, Mexico. May 9 – Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show opens in London. May 14 – The cornerstone of the new Stanford University, in northern California, is laid (the college opens in 1891). May 25 – The Hells Canyon massacre begins: 34 Chinese gold miners are ambushed and murdered in Hells Canyon, Oregon, United States.[10] June 8 – Herman Hollerith receives a U.S. patent for his punched card calculator. June 18 – The Reinsurance Treaty is closed between Germany and Russia. June 21 The British Empire celebrates Queen Victoria's Golden Jubilee, marking the 50th year of her reign.[11] Zululand becomes a British colony. June 23 – The Rocky Mountains Park Act becomes law in Canada, creating that nation's first national park, Banff National Park.[12] June 23: Banff National Park June 28 – Minot, North Dakota is incorporated as a city. June 29 – The United Retail Federation is established in Brisbane, Australia. July–September July – James Blyth operates the first working wind turbine at Marykirk, Scotland.[13][14] July 1 – Construction of the iron structure of the Eiffel Tower starts in Paris, France. July 6 – King Kalākaua of Hawai'i is forced by anti-monarchists to sign the 'Bayonet Constitution', stripping the Hawaiian monarchy of much of its authority, as well as disenfranchising most native Hawaiians, all Asians and the poor. July 12 – Odense Boldklub, the Danish football team, is founded as the Odense Cricket Club. July 19 – Dorr Eugene Felt receives the first U.S. patent for his comptometer.[15] July 26 L. L. Zamenhof publishes "Unua Libro" (Dr. Esperanto's International Language), the first description of Esperanto, the constructed international auxiliary language. Blackpool F.C. is created in England, U.K. August – The earliest constituent of the U.S. National Institutes of Health is established at the Marine Hospital, Staten Island, as the Laboratory of Hygiene. August 8 – Antonio Guzmán Blanco ends his term as President of Venezuela. August 13 – Hibernian F.C. of Scotland defeats Preston North End F.C. of England to win the 'Championship of the World', after the two teams win the Association football Cup competitions in their respective countries. September 5 – The Theatre Royal, Exeter, England, burns down, killing 186 people. September 28 – The 1887 Yellow River flood begins in China, killing 900,000 to 2,000,000 people. July 26: Esperanto October–December October 1 – The British Empire takes over Balochistan. October 3 – Florida A&M University opens its doors in Tallahassee, Florida. October 12 – Yamaha Corporation, the global musical instrument and audiovisual brand, is founded as Yamaha Organ Manufacturing in Hamamatsu, Japan.[16] November Results of the Michelson–Morley experiment are published, indicating that the speed of light is independent of motion. Arthur Conan Doyle's detective character Sherlock Holmes makes his first appearance, in the novel A Study in Scarlet, published in Beeton's Christmas Annual. November 3 – The Coimbra Academic Association, the students' union of the University of Coimbra in Portugal, is founded. November 6 – The Association football club Celtic F.C. is formed in Glasgow, Scotland, by Irish Marist Brother Walfrid, to help alleviate poverty in the city's East End by raising money for his charity, the 'Poor Children's Dinner Table'.[17][18] November 8 – Emile Berliner is granted a U.S. patent for the Berliner Gramophone. November 10 – Louis Lingg, sentenced to be hanged for his alleged role in the Haymarket affair (a bombing in Chicago on May 4, 1886), kills himself by dynamite. November 11 – August Spies, Albert Parsons, Adolph Fischer and George Engel are hanged for inciting riot and murder in the Haymarket affair. November 13 – Bloody Sunday: Police in London clash with radical and Irish nationalist protesters. December 5 – The International Bureau of Intellectual Property is established. December 25 – Glenfiddich single malt Scotch whisky is first produced. Date unknown Laos and Cambodia are added to French Indochina. Heinrich Hertz discovers the photoelectric effect on the production and reception of electromagnetic (EM) waves (radio); this is an important step towards the understanding of the quantum nature of light. Franz König publishes "Über freie Körper in den Gelenken" in the medical journal Deutsche Zeitschrift für Chirurgie, describing (and naming) the disease Osteochondritis dissecans for the first time. Teachers College, later part of Columbia University, is founded. The first English-language edition of Friedrich Engels' 1844 study of The Condition of the Working Class in England, translated by Florence Kelley, is published in New York City. Publication in Barcelona of Enrique Gaspar's El anacronópete, the first work of fiction to feature a time machine.[19] Publication begins of Futabatei Shimei's The Drifting Cloud (Ukigumo), the first modern novel in Japan. The Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn is founded. Nagase Shoten (長瀬商店), predecessor of Japanese cosmetics and toiletry brand Kao Corporation, is founded in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan.[citation needed] Tokyo Fire Insurance, predecessor of Sompo Japan Nipponkoa Insurance, is founded.[20] Global construction and real estate development company Skanska is founded in Malmö, Sweden.[21] American financial services company A. G. Edwards is founded by General Albert Gallatin Edwards in St. Louis, Missouri. Heyl & Patterson Inc., a pioneer in coal unloading equipment, is founded by Edmund W. Heyl and William J. Patterson in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The first battery rail car is used on the Royal Bavarian State Railways.[22] Births January–February Miklós Kállay Arthur Rubinstein Edelmiro Julián Farrell Joseph Bech Chico Marx January 1 Wilhelm Canaris, head of German military intelligence in World War II (d. 1945) Max Ritter von Müller, German World War I fighter ace (d. 1918) January 3 – August Macke, German painter (d. 1914)[23] January 10 – Robinson Jeffers, American poet (d. 1962) January 13 – Jorge Chávez, pioneer Peruvian aviator (d. 1910) January 17 – Ola Raknes, Norwegian psychoanalyst, philologist (d. 1975) January 19 – Alexander Woollcott, American intellectual (d. 1943) January 21 – Maude Davis, oldest person in the world (d. 2002) January 22 – Elmer Fowler Stone, American aviator, first United States Coast Guard aviator (d. 1936) January 23 Miklós Kállay, 34th Prime Minister of Hungary (d. 1967)[24] Dorothy Payne Whitney, American-born philanthropist, social activist (d. 1968) January 28 – Arthur Rubinstein, Polish-born pianist and conductor (d. 1982)[25] February 3 – Georg Trakl, Austrian poet (d. 1914)[26] February 5 – Corneliu Dragalina, Romanian general (d. 1949) February 6 – Josef Frings, Archbishop of Cologne (d. 1978) February 10 – John Franklin Enders, American scientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (d. 1985)[27] February 11 – Ernst Hanfstaengl, German-born pianist, U.S. politician (d. 1975) February 12 – Edelmiro Julián Farrell, Argentine general, 28th President of Argentina (d. 1980) February 17 Joseph Bech, Luxembourgish politician, 2-time Prime Minister of Luxembourg (d. 1975)[28] Leevi Madetoja, Finnish composer (d. 1947)[29] February 20 – Vincent Massey, Governor General of Canada (d. 1967)[30] February 21 – Korechika Anami, Japanese general (d. 1945) March–April Julian Huxley Marc Chagall Gustav Ludwig Hertz Erwin Schrödinger Giovanni Gronchi March 4 – Violet MacMillan, American Broadway theatre actress (d. 1953) March 5 Harry Turner, American professional football player (d. 1914) Heitor Villa-Lobos, Brazilian composer (d. 1959)[31] March 11 – Raoul Walsh, American film director (d. 1980) March 13 – Alexander Vandegrift, American general (d. 1973) March 14 Sylvia Beach, American publisher in Paris (d. 1952)[32] Charles Reisner, American silent actor, film director (d. 1962) March 18 – Aurel Aldea, Romanian general and politician (d. 1949) March 21 – Luís Filipe, Prince Royal of Portugal (d. 1908) March 22 – Chico Marx, American comedian and actor (d. 1961) March 23 Juan Gris, Spanish-born painter, graphic artist (d. 1927)[33] Prince Felix Yusupov, Russian assassin of Rasputin (d. 1967) March 24 – Roscoe Arbuckle, American actor, comedian, film director, and screenwriter (d. 1933) March 25 – Chūichi Nagumo, Japanese admiral (d. 1944) March 25 – Padre Pio, Italian Franciscan Capuchin, mystic and Catholic saint (d. 1968) April 2 – Louise Schroeder, German politician (d. 1957) April 3 – Nishizō Tsukahara, Japanese admiral (d. 1966) April 10 – Bernardo Houssay, Argentine physiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1971) April 12 – Harold Lockwood, American film actor (d.1918) April 15 Mike Brady, American golfer (d. 1972) Felix Pipes, Austrian tennis player (d. 1983)[34] April 22 – Harald Bohr, Danish mathematician and footballer (d. 1951)[35] April 26 – Kojo Tovalou Houénou, prominent African critic of the French colonial empire in Africa (d. 1936) May– June Saint-John Perse May 2 Vernon Castle, British dancer (d. 1918) Eddie Collins, American baseball player (d. 1951) May 5 – Geoffrey Fisher, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1972) May 11 – Paul Wittgenstein, Austrian-born pianist (d. 1951) May 15 – John H. Hoover, American admiral (d. 1970) May 22 – Jim Thorpe, American athlete (d. 1953) May 23 – C. R. M. F. Cruttwell, English historian (d. 1941)[36] May 25 – Pio of Pietrelcina, Italian saint (d. 1968) May 26 – Paul Lukas, Hungarian-born actor (d. 1971) May 31 – Saint-John Perse, French diplomat, writer and Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)[37] June 3 – Carlo Michelstaedter, Italian philosopher (d. 1910) June 4 – Tom Longboat, Canadian distance runner (d. 1949) June 5 – Ruth Benedict, American anthropologist (d. 1948) June 9 – Emilio Mola, Spanish Nationalist commander (d. 1937) June 13 – André François-Poncet, French politician, diplomat (d. 1978) June 22 Julian Huxley, British biologist (d. 1975) Santiago Amat, Spanish sailor (d. 1982) June 26 – Ganna Walska, Polish opera singer (d. 1984) July– August July 1 Maria Isidia da Conceição, Brazilian supercentenarian Morton Deyo, American admiral (d. 1973) July 3 – Elith Pio, Danish actor (d. 1983) July 6 – Annette Kellermann, Australian professional swimmer, vaudeville star, film actress, writer and business owner (d. 1975) July 7 – Marc Chagall, Russian-born painter (d. 1985)[38] July 9 – Samuel Eliot Morison, American historian (d. 1976) July 11 – Nicolae Păiș, Romanian admiral (d. 1952) July 14 – Curtis Shake, American jurist (d. 1978) July 16 – Shoeless Joe Jackson, American baseball player (d. 1951) July 18 – Vidkun Quisling, Norwegian politician, traitor (d. 1945) July 21 – Luis A. Eguiguren, Peruvian historian and politician (d. 1967) July 22 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975) July 28 – Marcel Duchamp, French-born artist (d. 1968)[39] July 29 Sigmund Romberg, Hungarian-born composer (d. 1951) Mamoru Shigemitsu, Japanese diplomat and politician (d. 1957) July 31 – Mitsuru Ushijima, Japanese general (d. 1945) August 3 Rupert Brooke, British war poet (d. 1915)[40] August Wesley, Finnish journalist, trade unionist, and revolutionary (d. ?)[41] August 4 – Peter Bocage, American jazz musician (d. 1967) August 6 – Oliver Wallace, English-born film composer (d. 1963) August 12 – Erwin Schrödinger, Austrian physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1961) August 13 – Julius Freed, American inventor, banker (d. 1952) August 17 Emperor Charles I of Austria (d. 1922) Marcus Garvey, African American publisher, entrepreneur and Pan Africanist (d. 1940)[42] August 22 – Walter Citrine, 1st Baron Citrine, British trade unionist (d. 1983) August 24 – Harry Hooper, American baseball player (d. 1974) August 27 – Julia Sanderson, American actress (d. 1975) September–October Avery Brundage Le Corbusier Chiang Kai-shek September 1 – Blaise Cendrars, Swiss writer (d. 1961)[43] September 3 – Frank Christian, American jazz musician (d. 1973) September 5 – Irene Fenwick, American actress (d. 1936) September 8 – Jacob L. Devers, American general (d. 1979) September 9 – Alf Landon, American Republican politician, presidential candidate (d. 1987) September 10 – Giovanni Gronchi, 3rd President of Italy (d. 1978) September 12 – Yusif Vazir Chamanzaminli, Azerbaijani statesman, writer and claimed "core author" of novel Ali and Nino (d. in Gulag 1943) September 13 Lancelot Holland, British admiral (d. 1941) Leopold Ružička, Croatian chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1976) Frank Gray (researcher), Physicist and researcher, known for the Gray code (d. 1969) September 16 – Nadia Boulanger, French composer and composition teacher (d. 1979)[44] September 26 – William Barnard Rhodes-Moorhouse, British aviator, first airman to receive the Victoria Cross (d. 1915) September 28 – Avery Brundage, American sports official (d. 1975)[45] October 2 – Violet Jessop, Argentine-born British RMS Titanic survivor (d. 1971) October 4 – Charles Alan Pownall, American admiral, 3rd Military Governor of Guam (d. 1975) October 5 – René Cassin, French judge, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1976) October 6 – Le Corbusier, Swiss architect (d. 1965)[46] October 8 – Huntley Gordon, Canadian-born actor (d. 1956) October 13 – Jozef Tiso, Prime Minister of Slovakia (d. 1947) October 14 – Ernest Pingoud, Finnish composer (d. 1942) October 18 – Takashi Sakai, Japanese general (d. 1946) October 20 – Prince Yasuhiko Asaka, Japanese prince (d. 1981) October 22 – John Reed, American journalist (d. 1920)[47] October 23 – Lothar Rendulic, Austrian-born German general (d. 1971) October 24 – Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg, Queen Consort of Spain (d. 1969) October 28 – Herb Byrne, Australian rules footballer (d. 1959) October 31 – Chiang Kai-shek, 1st President of the Republic of China (d. 1975) November - December Bernard Montgomery Boris Karloff Erich von Manstein November 1 – L. S. Lowry, English painter (d. 1976)[48] November 6 – Walter Johnson, American baseball player (d. 1946) November 10 – Arnold Zweig, German writer (d. 1968)[49] November 11 Walther Wever, German general, pre-World War II Luftwaffe commander (d. 1936) Roland Young, English actor (d. 1953) November 14 – Amadeo de Souza Cardoso, Portuguese painter (d. 1918) November 15 – Georgia O'Keeffe, American painter (d. 1986)[50] November 17 – Bernard Montgomery, British World War II commander (d. 1976) November 19 – James B. Sumner, American chemist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1955) November 23 Boris Karloff, British horror film actor (d. 1969) Henry Moseley, English physicist (d. 1915) November 24 – Erich von Manstein, German field marshal (d. 1973) November 25 – Nikolai Vavilov, Russian and Soviet agronomist, botanist and geneticist (d. 1943)[51] November 27 – Masaharu Homma, Japanese general (d. 1946) November 28 Jacobo Palm, Curaçao-born composer (d. 1982) Ernst Röhm, German Nazi SA leader (d. 1934) November 30 – Beatrice Kerr, Australian swimmer, diver, and aquatic performer (d. 1971) December 3 – Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni, former Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1990) December 6 – Lynn Fontanne, British-born actress (d. 1983) December 12 – Kurt Atterberg, Swedish composer (d. 1974) December 13 – Alvin Cullum York, American World War I hero (d. 1964) December 16 – Adone Zoli, Italian politician, 35th Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1960) December 22 – Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan, Indian mathematician (d. 1920) December 25 – Conrad Hilton, American hotelier (d. 1979) December 26 – Arthur Percival, British general (d. 1966) Deaths January–June January 12 – Stafford Northcote, 1st Earl of Iddesleigh, British politician (b. 1818) February 19 – Eduard Douwes Dekker, Dutch writer (b. 1820)[52] February 26 – Anandi Gopal Joshi, first Indian woman doctor (b. 1865) February 27 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer (b. 1833)[53] March 4 – Catherine Huggins, British actor, singer, director and manager (b. 1821) March 8 – Henry Ward Beecher, American clergyman, reformer (b. 1813) March 24 Jean-Joseph Farre, French general and statesman (b. 1816) Justin Holland, American musician, civil rights activist (b. 1819) Ivan Kramskoi, Russian painter (b. 1837) March 28 – Ditlev Gothard Monrad, Danish politician (b. 1811)[54] April 10 – John T. Raymond, American actor (b. 1836) April 19 – Henry Hotze, Swiss-American Confederate propagandist (b. 1833) April 23 – John Ceiriog Hughes, Welsh poet (b. 1832)[55] May 7 – C. F. W. Walther, German-American theologian (b. 1811) May 8 – Aleksandr Ulyanov, Russian revolutionary, brother of V. I. Lenin (b. 1866) May 14 – Lysander Spooner, American philosopher and abolitionist (b. 1808) June 4 – William A. Wheeler, 19th Vice President of the United States (b. 1819) June 10 – Richard Lindon, British inventor of the rugby ball, the India-rubber inflatable bladder and the brass hand pump for the same (b. 1816) July–December Gustav Kirchhoff July 8 – John Wright Oakes, English landscape painter (b. 1820) July 17 – Dorothea Dix, American social activist (b. 1802) July 25 – John Taylor, American religious leader (b. 1808) August 8 – Alexander William Doniphan, American lawyer, soldier (b. 1808) August 16 Webster Paulson, English civil engineer (b. 1837) Sir Julius von Haast, German-born New Zealand geologist (b. 1822) August 19 Alvan Clark, American telescope manufacturer (b. 1804) Spencer Fullerton Baird, American naturalist and museum curator (b. 1823) August 20 – Jules Laforgue, French poet (b. 1860)[56] September 12 – August von Werder, Prussian general (b. 1808) October 12 – Dinah Craik, English novelist and poet (b. 1826)[57] October 17 – Gustav Kirchhoff, German physicist (b. 1824) October 21 – Bernard Jauréguiberry, French admiral, statesman (b. 1815) October 26 – Hugo von Kirchbach, Prussian general (d. 1809) October 31 – Sir George Macfarren, British composer and musicologist (b. 1813) November 2 Jenny Lind, Swedish soprano (b. 1820)[58] Alfred Domett, 4th Premier of New Zealand (b. 1811)[59] November 8 – Doc Holliday, American gambler, gunfighter (b. 1851)[60] November 19 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1859)[61] November 28 – Gustav Fechner, German experimental psychologist (b. 1801) December 5 – Richard Lyons, 1st Viscount Lyons, British diplomat (b. 1817) December 14 – William Garrow Lettsom, British diplomat, mineralogist and spectroscopist (b. 1805) December 23 – Adolphus Frederick Alexander Woodford, British parson (b. 1821) Date unknown Antoinette Nording, Swedish perfume entrepreneur (b. 1814) References United States Naval Institute (1930). Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute. The Institute. p. 406. "The Loss of the Kapunda: Details of the Disaster". Belfast Morning News. February 23, 1887. p. 5. Retrieved March 18, 2016. Gaston Tissandier (1889). The Eiffel Tower: A Description of the Monument, Its Construction, Its Machinery, Its Object, and Its Utility. With an Autographic Letter of M. Gustave Eiffel. Illustrated. Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington. p. 27. Dana Facaros; Michael Pauls (1982). New York & the Mid-Atlantic States. Regnery Gateway. p. 171. ISBN 978-0-89526-856-3. Serial set (no.0-3099). 1891. p. 47. Sister Mary Antonio Johnston (1948). Federal Relations with the Great Sioux Indians of South Dakota,1887-1933, with Particular Reference to Land Policy Under the Dawes Act. Catholic University of America Press. p. 41. Mike Cronin; William Murphy; Paul Rouse (2009). The Gaelic Athletic Association, 1884-2009. Irish Academic Press. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-7165-3028-2. Lewis Ford (1892). The Variety Book Containing Life Sketches and Reminiscences. Washington Press. p. 106. Charles Hitchco*ck Sherrill (1931). Bismarck & Mussolini. Houghton Mifflin. p. 97-101. Oregon Historical Society (2006). Oregon Historical Quarterly. Oregon Historical Society. p. 326. Archived November 1, 2005, at the Wayback Machine "Parks Canada - This Week in History". March 18, 2004. Archived from the original on March 18, 2004. Price, Trevor J. (2004). "Blyth, James (1839–1906)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/100957. Retrieved April 16, 2014. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) Hardy, Chris (July 6, 2010). "Renewable energy and role of Marykirk's James Blyth". The Courier (Dundee). D. C. Thomson & Co. U.S. Patent No. 366,945, filed July 6, 1886; second patent granted October 11, 1887: U.S. Patent No. 371,496, filed March 12, 1887. "Brand and History - About Us - Yamaha Corporation". Retrieved May 19, 2021. Coogan, Tim Pat (2002). Wherever Green Is Worn: The Story of the Irish Diaspora. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 250. ISBN 978-1-4039-6014-6. Wagg, Stephen (2002). British Football and Social Exclusion. Routledge. p. 196. ISBN 978-0-7146-5217-7. Westcott, Kathryn (April 9, 2011). "HG Wells or Enrique Gaspar: Whose time machine was first?". BBC News. Retrieved April 9, 2011. "The Yasuda Fire and Marine Insurance Company, Limited History". Funding Universe. Retrieved May 19, 2021. "Our history". Skanska - Global corporate website. Retrieved October 19, 2020. Johnston, Ben (2010). "Battery Rail Vehicles". Retrieved May 19, 2021. Meseure, Anna; Macke, August (1993). August Macke, 1887-1914. Benedikt Taschen. p. 7. ISBN 978-3-8228-0551-0. Szy, Tibor (1966). Hungarians in America: A Biographical Directory of Professionals of Hungarian Origin in the Americas. Kossuth Foundation. p. 218. Opus. Warwick Publishing Group. 1999. p. 30. Trakl, Georg; Skelton, Robin (1994). Dark Seasons: A Selection of Poems. Broken Jaw Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-921411-22-2. "John F. Enders". Nobel Prize. Retrieved April 12, 2021. Official Journal of the European Communities: Debates of the European Parliament. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. March 1975. p. 2. Morris, Mark (1996). A Guide to 20th-century Composers. Methuen. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-413-45601-4. Bissell, Claude (December 15, 1981). The Young Vincent Massey. University of Toronto Press, Scholarly Publishing Division. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4426-3371-1. Béhague, Gerard (1994). Heitor Villa-Lobos: The Search for Brazil's Musical Soul. Institute of Latin American Studies, University of Texas at Austin. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-292-70823-5. Kellner, Bruce (1988). A Gertrude Stein Companion: Content with the Example. Greenwood Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-313-25078-1. Brion, Marcel (1958). Modern Painting; from Impressionism to Abstract Art. Thames and Hudson. p. 95. "Fritz Felix PIPES - Olympic Tennis | Austria". International Olympic Committee. June 14, 2016. Bochner, Salomon (1992). Collected Papers of Salomon Bochner. American Mathematical Society. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-8218-7054-9. Ellis, Geoffrey (2007). "Cruttwell, Charles Robert Mowbray Fraser". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/32655. Retrieved November 1, 2010. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.) (subscription required) Bernard S. Schlessinger; June H. Schlessinger (1991). The Who's Who of Nobel Prize Winners, 1901-1990. Oryx Press. p. 74. ISBN 978-0-89774-599-4. Anthony Mason (July 5, 2004). Marc Chagall. Gareth Stevens Publishing LLLP. p. 6. ISBN 978-0-8368-5649-1. Marcel Brion (1958). Modern Painting; from Impressionism to Abstract Art. Thames and Hudson. p. 94. John Lehmann (1980). Rupert Brooke: His Life and His Legend. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-297-77757-1. August Wesley - Born Glorious Marcus Garvey; Robert A. Hill (August 17, 1987). Marcus Garvey Life and Lessons: A Centennial Companion to the Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers. University of California Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-520-06265-8. John Flower (January 17, 2013). Historical Dictionary of French Literature. Scarecrow Press. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-8108-7945-4. Alan Kendall (1976). The Tender Tyrant, Nadia Boulanger: A Life Devoted to Music : a Biography. Macdonald and Jane's. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-356-08403-9. John Apostal Lucas (1980). The Modern Olympic Games. A. S. Barnes. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-498-02447-4. Juan Antonio Ramírez (2000). The Beehive Metaphor: From Gaudí to Le Corbusier. Reaktion Books. p. 116. ISBN 978-1-86189-056-6. New Times. Trud. September 1987. p. 28. Allen Andrews (1977). The Life of L. S. Lowry, 1887-1976. Jupiter Books. p. 30. ISBN 978-0-904041-60-6. Irene Harand (1937). His Struggle (an Answer to Hitler). Artcraft Press. p. 240. Britta Benke (2000). Georgia O'Keeffe, 1887-1986: Flowers in the Desert. Taschen. p. 5. ISBN 978-3-8228-5861-5. Sputnik. Novosti Printing House. 1997. p. 5. Frank Northen Magill (1958). Masterplots: Cyclopedia of world authors; seven hundred fifty three novelists, poets, playwrights from the world's fine literature. Salem Press. p. 777. Overture: The Magazine of the Baltimore Symphony. Baltimore Symphony Orchestra Association. 1979. p. 20. Jon Bartley Stewart (2009). Kierkegaard and His Danish Contemporaries: Philosophy, politics and social theory. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-7546-6872-5. David Gwenallt Jones. "Hughes, John (Ceiriog; 1832-1887), poet". Dictionary of Welsh Biography. National Library of Wales. Retrieved November 2, 2020. St James Press; Anthony Levi (1992). Guide to French Literature: 1789 to the Present. St. James Press. p. 345. ISBN 978-1-55862-086-5. August Nemo; Dinah Craik (July 1, 2019). Essential Novelists - Dinah Craik: The Ideals of English Middle-class Life. Tacet Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-85-7777-325-1. Cecilia Jorgensen; Jens Jorgensen (2003). Chopin and the Swedish Nightingale: The Life and Times of Chopin and a Romance Unveiled 154 Years Later. Icons of Europe. p. 89. ISBN 978-2-9600385-0-7. Claudia Orange (December 21, 2015). The Story of a Treaty. Bridget Williams Books. p. 269. ISBN 978-1-927131-34-3. Jon Tuska; Vicki Piekarski; Paul J. Blanding (1984). The Frontier Experience: A Reader's Guide to the Life and Literature of the American West. McFarland. p. 124. ISBN 978-0-89950-118-5. Emma Lazarus (1888). The Poems of Emma Lazarus. Houghton, Mifflin. p. 1. Charles III (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is King of the United Kingdom and 14 other Commonwealth realms.[fn 4] He acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022 upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. He was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history and, at the age of 73, is the oldest person to ascend the British throne. Charles was born in Buckingham Palace during the reign of his maternal grandfather, King George VI. Charles was three when his mother ascended the throne in 1952, making him the heir apparent. He was made Prince of Wales in 1958 and his investiture was held in 1969. He was educated at Cheam and Gordonstoun schools, as was his father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Charles later spent six months at the Timbertop campus of Geelong Grammar School in Victoria, Australia. After earning a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Cambridge, Charles served in the Air Force and Navy from 1971 to 1976. In 1981, he married Lady Diana Spencer, with whom he had two sons, William and Harry. In 1996, the couple divorced after they had each engaged in well-publicised extramarital affairs. In 2005, Charles married his long-time partner, Camilla Parker Bowles. As Prince of Wales, Charles undertook official duties on behalf of Queen Elizabeth II. He founded the youth charity the Prince's Trust in 1976, sponsors the Prince's Charities, and is a patron, president, or a member of over 400 other charities and organisations. He has advocated for the conservation of historic buildings and the importance of architecture in society.[3] A critic of modernist architecture, Charles worked on the creation of Poundbury, an experimental new town based on his architectural tastes. He is also an author or co-author of over 20 books. An environmentalist, Charles supported organic farming and action to prevent climate change during his time as the manager of the Duchy of Cornwall estates, earning him awards and recognition from environmental groups.[4] He is also a prominent critic of the adoption of genetically modified food. Charles's support for homeopathy and other alternative medicine has been the subject of criticism. THE FOLLOWING STATEMENT IS ISSUED BY THE PRESS SECRETARY TO THE QUEEN Further details of The Queen's Golden Jubilee Weekend have been announced today, with celebrations ranging from street parties to a unique pageant along The Mall. The Jubilee Weekend, taking place 1-4 June, will comprise a four-day festival of events culminating in a procession in central London commemorating the past fifty years of the Queen's reign, and the cultural diversity achieved both within the UK and across the Commonwealth. Saturday, 1 June The Golden Jubilee celebrations will start on the evening of Saturday 1 June with a classical concert including major international stars in the gardens of Buckingham Palace, watched by an audience of 12,000 drawn by public ballot. It will also be seen by many thousands on large video screens specially erected in London and other towns and cities across the United Kingdom to enable as many people as possible to share in the celebrations. Sunday, 2 June This day will be more of a day of reflection focussed on Jubilee church services and bell-ringing across the nation and in the Commonwealth, where The Queen is also Head of State of 15 other countries apart from the United Kingdom. Monday, 3 June Monday will see celebration parties and bonfires. Communities will be united in festivity through the staging of garden and street parties as well as other celebrations, including the lighting of beacons and bonfires. The Queen's Golden Jubilee Weekend Trust, a charity, is working with the organisation Golden Jubilee Summer Party which, in partnership with local authorities, church groups, public bodies, broadcasters, youth organisations, business, charitable and other organisations from all parts of the community, will promote participation in the Golden Jubilee and a sense of pride and unity. At lunchtime on Monday, 3 June, and to coincide with a BBC programme of Music Live, it is hoped that church bells, gongs, and other forms of music making will be sounded to signal the start of the Festival celebrations. These will range from simple gatherings of friends to mass events in public parks and on village greens. In a replica of events at the last Golden Jubilee, that of Queen Victoria in 1887, a chain of beacons and bonfires will be lit across the UK from Lands End to John O'Groats and from Great Yarmouth to Holyhead, at the Arctic Circle and in Antartica as well as in the Commonwealth, as a climax to the day's festivities. The beacons will form a chain across the UK. The major informal festivities on Monday, 3 June start with a rock and pop concert in the gardens of Buckingham Palace in the evening, again watched by an audience of 12,000 drawn from the public and broadcast through screens nationwide as well as on television. Afterwards, The Queen will light a special beacon on the Mall outside the gates of Buckingham Palace. This will be followed by a spectacular "Son et Lumiere Fireworks" programme in the vicinity of Buckingham Palace. Tuesday, 4 June Tuesday, 4 June will start with a State Procession from Buckingham Palace to St Paul's Cathedral for a Thanksgiving Service. The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh will use the Coronation Gold Coach to proceed to St Paul's. After the service at St Paul's and a lunch at The Guildhall hosted by the City, The Queen and Duke of Edinburgh will return to Horse Guards where they will watch a National Festival of processions down the Mall. The Mall Pageant will include: * a carnival theme * youth bands and performers * Commonwealth procession * commemoration of the Queen's fifty years with key personalities, achievers and stars of the reign * a flypast by the RAF and Concorde as The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh appear on the balcony of Buckingham Palace Coronation of Charles III and Camilla Article Talk Read Edit View history Tools Coronation of Charles III and Camilla HM King Charles III HM The Queen Consort (cropped-v1).jpg Charles and Camilla in 2019 Date 6 May 2023; 11:00 A.M.(BST) Venue Westminster Abbey Location London, United Kingdom Participants King Charles III Queen Camilla Great Officers of State Archbishops and bishops assistant of the Church of England Garter Principal King of Arms Peers of the Realm Website Edit this at Wikidata The coronation of Charles III and his wife, Camilla, as king and queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms is scheduled to take place on Saturday, 6 May 2023, at Westminster Abbey. Charles acceded to the throne on 8 September 2022, upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II. Compared with previous coronations, the ceremony will undergo some alterations to represent multiple faiths, cultures, and communities across the United Kingdom, and will be shorter than his mother's coronation in 1953. The ceremony will begin with the anointing of Charles, symbolising his spiritual entry into kingship, and then his crowning and enthronement, representing his assumption of temporal powers and responsibilities. Camilla will be crowned in a shorter and simpler ceremony. The royal family will travel to Buckingham Palace afterward, in a state procession, and appear on the balcony to celebrate the occasion. In addition to the coronation ceremony, the event will be marked by public ceremonies and celebrations in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the British Crown Dependencies and overseas territories. On 7 May, the Coronation Big Lunch will take place in the United Kingdom, providing the public with the opportunity to mark the occasion with street parties. The Coronation Concert will be held on the same day at Windsor Castle with representatives of the King and Queen's charities as well as members of the general public in attendance. The Big Help Out initiative will take place on 8 May, to encourage community service and volunteering. Both the coronation at Westminster Abbey and the concert at Windsor Castle will be broadcast on television and streamed online. This will be the first coronation of a British monarch in the 21st century and the 40th to be held at Westminster Abbey since 1066.[1][a] Preparation Background Charles III became king immediately upon the death of his mother, Elizabeth II, at 15:10 BST on Thursday 8 September 2022. He was proclaimed king by the Accession Council of the United Kingdom on Saturday 10 September,[3] which was followed by proclamations in other Commonwealth realms.[4] Due to Elizabeth's advanced age, Charles's coronation has been planned for years, under the code name Operation Golden Orb.[5][6][7] During Elizabeth's reign, planning meetings for Operation Golden Orb were held at least once a year, attended by representatives of the government, the Church of England and Clarence House staff.[5] Planning The Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, is in charge of organising the coronation as hereditary Earl Marshal.[8] A committee of privy counsellors will arrange the event.[9][7] In October 2022, the date of Charles and Camilla's coronation was announced: Saturday 6 May 2023 at Westminster Abbey.[10] Buckingham Palace set the date to ensure sufficient time to mourn the death of Queen Elizabeth II before holding a joyous ceremony.[9][7] In November 2022, the government proclaimed that an extra bank holiday would occur on 8 May, two days after the coronation.[11] On 20 January 2023, Buckingham Palace announced plans for the coronation weekend between 6 and 8 May.[12] As a state occasion, the coronation is paid for by the British government. The government thus also decides the guest list,[13] which will include members of the British royal family, the British prime minister, representatives of the houses of Parliament, representatives of the governments of the Commonwealth realms and foreign royalty and heads of state.[14] Safety regulations at Westminster Abbey will restrict the number of guests to around 2,000.[15] After the ceremony, Charles and Camilla are expected to appear on the Buckingham Palace balcony.[7] For the first time, a Coronation Claims Office has been established within the Cabinet Office instead of the traditional Court of Claims to handle claims to perform a historic or ceremonial role at the coronation.[16] The official photographer of the coronation will be Hugo Burnand. He had previously been the official photographer for Charles and Camilla's wedding in 2005.[17] Invitation to the Coronation of King Charles III and Queen Camilla On 5 April 2023, the official invitation from King Charles III and Queen Camilla was unveiled and sent to about 2,000 guests.[18] A new official photo of the royal couple by Hugo Burnand was also released.[18] The invitation for the coronation was designed by Andrew Jamieson, a heraldic artist and manuscript illuminator, and features the couple's coats of arms and a motif of the Green Man against a background of the emblematic flowers of the UK and a British wildflower meadow and wildlife.[18][19] The official commemorative range to mark the coronation was released by Royal Collection Shop on 14 April 2023. The collection is crafted from English bone china and finished in 22 carat gold.[20] On the evening and early morning of 17 and 18 April, initial dress rehearsals began taking place in London for the military processions.[21] The RAF was also seen rehearsing for the flypast on 19 April.[22] In preparation for the coronation, Westminster Abbey was closed to tourists and worshippers from 25 April until 8 May.[23] Emblems Coronation emblem in the United Kingdom Coronation emblem in Canada The Coronation Emblem was designed by Sir Jony Ive with his creative collective LoveFrom and depicts the flora of the four nations of the United Kingdom in the shape of St Edward's Crown.[24] The flora shown in the emblem are the rose for England, the thistle for Scotland, the daffodil for Wales and the shamrock for Northern Ireland.[25] The primary emblem is in blue and red, the colours of the Union Jack. Secondary emblems were also made available in red, blue, black and white.[25] All versions were also made available in Welsh.[26] The Palace also announced that the rules governing the commercial use of Royal Photographs and Official Insignia would be temporarily relaxed with the King and the Queen Consort's approval in this case to allow souvenir manufacturing.[27] A Canadian emblem for the coronation was created by Cathy Bursey-Sabourin, the Fraser Herald of Arms, and registered with the Canadian Heraldic Authority. The emblem includes Charles III's royal cypher inside a ring of 13 triangular shapes, alluding to a string of pennants and Canada's provinces and territories. The circular arrangement symbolises inclusion, as well as the Indigenous Canadian concept of equity and the cycles of the natural world. The colour green is a nod to the King's commitment to the environment, while the white space may be viewed as a sunburst, symbolising innovation and new ideas.[28] Coronation Procession The Gold State Coach of 1762 on display at the Royal Mews. It is expected to be used in the Coronation Procession from Westminster Abbey to Buckingham Palace. On the day of the coronation, the King and the Queen Consort will travel to Westminster Abbey in the Diamond Jubilee Coach drawn by six Windsor Greys as part of a procession known as "The King's Procession".[29][30] The Sovereign's Escort of the Household Cavalry Mounted Regiment and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police will take part in the procession, which will go along The Mall, down Whitehall and along Parliament Street, and around the east and south sides of Parliament Square.[29][31] The King and the Queen Consort, in the Gold State Coach drawn by eight Windsor Greys, and the royal family will take the same route in reverse and return to Buckingham Palace in a larger ceremonial procession, known as "The Coronation Procession".[29] They will be joined by armed forces and police services from across the Commonwealth and the British Overseas Territories, alongside the Sovereign's Bodyguard and Royal Watermen.[29][32] The Princess Royal and the Commander of the Household Cavalry will serve as Gold Stick-in-Waiting and Silver Stick-in-Waiting, respectively.[33] Over 5,000 members of the British Armed Forces and 400 Armed Forces personnel from at least 35 other Commonwealth countries will be part of the two processions, and 1,000 more will be lining the route.[34] The Royal British Legion will form a Guard of Honour of 100 Standard Bearers in Parliament Square.[34] Upon returning to the palace, the King and the Queen Consort will then receive a royal salute from the armed forces and join the other working members of the royal family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace to review a six-minute flypast of more than 60 aircraft.[29][30][34] A grandstand was built in front of Buckingham Palace with 3,800 seats offered to Armed Forces veterans, NHS and social care workers, and representatives of charities with links to the King and the Queen Consort who will be watching the procession and the flypast.[35] 354 uniformed cadet forces have been given the opportunity to watch the procession at Admiralty Arch.[35] Ceremony The leading object for the procession within the abbey will be the newly made Cross of Wales, which includes relics of the True Cross gifted to the King by Pope Francis.[36] Two maces, made between 1660 and 1695, and the Sword of State will be carried into the abbey before the King.[37] Also carried into the abbey will be the Sword of Spiritual Justice, the Sword of Temporal Justice, the blunt Sword of Mercy, and St Edward's Staff.[37] The Coronation Chair will be used by Charles during the ceremony, when it will house the Stone of Scone (not in picture) The service will begin at 11:00 am and will be conducted by the archbishop of Canterbury.[12] Charles will sit in King Edward's Chair, the name of which refers to either Edward the Confessor or Edward I of England, who had it built in 1300 to house the Stone of Scone that the English took from the Scots in 1296.[38][39][40] The 13th-century chair has undergone a programme of restoration and conservation in preparation for the ceremony.[41] Historic Environment Scotland announced in September 2022 that the Stone of Scone would be moved from the Crown Room of Edinburgh Castle to London for Charles's coronation at Westminster Abbey and returned to the Castle after the ceremony.[42] The holy anointing oil was based on the same formula as had been used in the coronation of Elizabeth II and was consecrated by Patriarch Theophilos III of Jerusalem at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre on 6 March 2023 under the supervision of Hosam Naoum, the Anglican Archbishop in Jerusalem.[43][44][45] It will be contained within the Ampulla and the archbishop will use the Spoon to perform the anointing.[37] As per the coronation of Elizabeth II, it has been confirmed by Buckingham Palace that the moment of anointing will not be directly shown on television.[46] St Edward's Crown, the Orb, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove, and the Sovereign's Ring The King will be presented with the Spurs, invested with the Armills (bracelets), the Sovereign's Orb, the Sovereign's Ring, the Sovereign's Sceptre with Cross and the Sovereign's Sceptre with Dove.[37] St Edward's Crown, which was removed in December 2022 from the Tower of London for resizing,[47] is to be used to crown the King.[13][7] A crown referred to as St Edward's Crown (the crown of England) is first recorded as having been used for the coronation of Henry III of England in 1220, and that crown may have been the same crown worn by Saint Edward the Confessor. However, it was destroyed by the Republican Oliver Cromwell, and the current St Edward's Crown was made as a replacement in 1661.[48][49] At the moment of the King's crowning, 21-gun salutes will be fired at 13 locations and on deployed Royal Navy ships along with 62-gun salutes and a six-gun salvo at the Tower of London and Horse Guards Parade.[34] The King will also wear the Imperial State Crown at the end of the ceremony.[50] The Queen Consort will be anointed and then invested with the Queen Consort's Ring, and handed the Queen Consort's Sceptre with Cross, and the Queen Consort's Rod with Dove.[37] Queen Mary's Crown was removed from display at the Tower of London for modification work and will be used to crown Queen Camilla.[51][b] The crown will be reset with the Cullinan III, IV and V diamonds and four of its detachable arches will be removed.[51] It will be the first time a queen is crowned using another consort's crown since 1727, when Caroline of Ansbach used the Crown of Mary of Modena.[51] The decision not to use the Crown of Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother avoids a potential diplomatic dispute with Pakistan, Afghanistan and India, which have all made claims of ownership of the Koh-i-Noor diamond in the past.[54] This will be the first coronation of a consort since that of Queen Elizabeth (later known as the Queen Mother) in 1937.[7] The Imperial State Crown will be worn by King Charles III after the service on the procession to Buckingham Palace and at the balcony appearance Queen Mary's Crown (here depicted in its original form) will be used to crown Queen Camilla Charles will be attended by four pages of honour. They are Prince George of Wales, Lord Oliver Cholmondeley (son of the Marquess and Marchioness of Cholmondeley), Nicholas Barclay (grandson of Sarah Troughton), and Ralph Tollemache (son of the Hon. Edward Tollemache). Camilla will also be attended by four pages of honour. They are her grandsons, Gus and Louis Lopes (sons of Laura Lopes) and Frederick Parker Bowles (son of Tom Parker Bowles), and her great-nephew, Arthur Elliot (son of Ben Elliot).[55] Camilla will also be accompanied by two "ladies in attendance": her sister, Annabel Elliot, and the Marchioness of Lansdowne.[56] It has been reported that unlike previous coronations, only King Charles's son and heir apparent, Prince William, will pay his personal homage and allegiance to the monarch, while other royal peers will not be asked to do the same.[57] Music The King personally oversaw the development of the music programme and commissioned twelve new pieces for the service.[58] Andrew Nethsingha, the organist and master of the choristers at the abbey, was appointed as the director of music for the coronation.[59] Six of the new commissions will be performed by the orchestra before the service and include "Brighter Visions Shine Afar" by Judith Weir, "Sacred Fire" by Sarah Class (which will be performed by Pretty Yende), "Be Thou my Vision - Triptych for Orchestra" by Nigel Hess, Roderick Williams, and Shirley J. Thompson, "Voices of the World" by Iain Farrington, and "King Charles III Coronation March" by Patrick Doyle.[60] "Tros y Garreg" by Sir Karl Jenkins will be part of the programme,[60] while tradition requires that the works of William Byrd, George Frideric Handel, Sir Edward Elgar, Sir Henry Walford Davies, Sir William Walton, Sir Hubert Parry, and Ralph Vaughan Williams be included as well.[59] In tribute to the King's 64-year tenure as Prince of Wales, a liturgical section of the ceremony will be performed in Welsh in the form of Paul Mealor's "Coronation Kyrie" which will be sung by Sir Bryn Terfel.[60] Debbie Wiseman created the two-part composition "Alleluia (O Clap your Hands)" and "Alleluia (O Sing Praises)", while Andrew Lloyd Webber composed a new coronation anthem, "Make a Joyful Noise", based on Psalm 98.[60] Other new compositions include "Coronation Sanctus" by Roxanna Panufnik and "Agnus Dei" by Tarik O'Regan.[60] Greek Orthodox music will also be included in the service in tribute to the King's ancestry and his late father, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[58] The choir for the coronation will be a combination of the choirs of Westminster Abbey, the Chapel Royal, Methodist College Belfast, and Truro Cathedral.[59][60] The Ascension Choir, a gospel choir, will also perform during the service.[59] The orchestra players will be drawn from Charles's patronages, including the Philharmonia Orchestra, Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, BBC National Orchestra of Wales, Regina Symphony Orchestra, English Chamber Orchestra, Scottish Chamber Orchestra, Royal Opera House Orchestra, and Welsh National Opera Orchestra.[59][60] The orchestra will be conducted by Sir Antonio Pappano and led by Vasko Vassilev.[60] Sir John Eliot Gardiner will conduct a programme of choral music consisting of the Monteverdi Choir and English Baroque Soloists before the service.[58][59] The State Trumpeters of the Household Cavalry and the Fanfare Trumpeters of the Royal Air Force will play the fanfares.[59] Guests Main article: List of guests at the coronation of Charles III and Camilla There were approximately 2,000 guests invited to the coronation. Invitees include members of the royal family, representatives from the Church of England, prominent politicians from the UK and the Commonwealth, and foreign heads of state and royalty.[61] As with prior coronations, many attendees will be seated in the side chapels of Westminster Abbey, rather than the principal nave.[62] The number of political attendees has been reduced significantly. In 1953, 800 MPs and over 900 peers were invited (virtually the entire Parliament of the United Kingdom), whereas the decision not to build scaffolding has significantly reduced capacity in the Abbey compared with previous ceremonies.[63] Buckingham Palace considered inviting as few as 20 MPs and 20 peers,[64] but an outcry from MPs and peers prompted those numbers to more than double, withe the Cabinet Office making final decisions on who is invited.[65] Cabinet ministers' spouses were not invited, angering some ministers.[66] On the government's advice, the King forbade the wearing of coronets, coronation robes and court uniform by those peers who have been invited (except those performing specific ceremonial roles); they may wear business suits or parliamentary ermine robes (worn for State Openings of Parliament) instead.[67][62] Invitations were extended to 850 community and charity representatives, including 450 British Empire Medal recipients and 400 young people; half of whom were nominated by the British government.[68] Public celebrations In April 2023, Buckingham Palace revealed a new emoji depicting St Edward's Crown for use on social media.[69] United Kingdom A Union Jack defaced with the coronation emblem at High Street at Bexley, London A postbox topper to mark the coronation in Goddington, London On 7 May, the Big Lunch team at the Eden Project is organizing the "Coronation Big Lunch", an event that will encourage people throughout the UK to host Big Lunches and street parties.[12] Coronation quiche was chosen by Charles and Camilla as the official dish of the Coronation Big Lunch.[70] The "Coronation Concert" will be held on the same day at Windsor Castle's East Lawn.[12][30] In addition to performances by singers, musicians, and stage and screen actors, the show will also feature "The Coronation Choir" composed of community choirs and amateur singers such as Refugee choirs, NHS choirs, LGBTQ+ singing groups, and deaf signing choirs.[12][30] The BBC will produce, stage, and broadcast the event. A national ballot was held between 10 and 28 February to distribute 5,000 pairs of free tickets for the public based on the geographical spread of the UK population.[12][71] Volunteers from the King and the Queen Consort's charities will also be among the audience.[12] The Coronation Concert will also feature performances from artists including Lionel Richie, Katy Perry, Andrea Bocelli, Sir Bryn Terfel, Freya Ridings, and Take That.[72] A number of musical performers – including Sir Elton John, Adele, Harry Styles, Robbie Williams, and the Spice Girls – reportedly turned down the palace's invitation to perform, citing scheduling conflicts.[73] A public holiday was declared on 8 May to commemorate the coronation.[74] On the same day, the Together Coalition, in partnership with The Scout Association, the Royal Voluntary Service, and various faith groups, is organising the Big Help Out initiative to encourage volunteering and community service.[12][30] The Royal Voluntary Service, of which Camilla is president, launched the Coronation Champions Awards which will recognise a diverse group of 500 volunteers nominated by members of the public.[75][76] The pubs will also remain open for an extra two hours until 1 am on the coronation weekend.[77] The Royal Mint released a new collection of coins, which includes a 50p and £5 coin and depicts the King wearing the Tudor Crown.[78] The British brewing company Greene King has produced a 2023 Coronation Ale special brew to commemorate the occasion. In addition, in May, the company will auction several unopened crates of a special brew created for the cancelled coronation of Edward VIII in 1937. All proceeds from the auction will be donated to The Prince's Trust.[79] Crown Dependencies A public holiday was declared in all three Crown Dependencies.[80][81][82] As in the UK, Big Help Outs will also be organised in the Crown Dependencies on the day of the holiday.[30][83][84] The states of Guernsey has planned four days of events to celebrate the coronation, from 5 to 8 May. A vigil will be held on 5 May at Forest Methodist Church to reflect on the coronation's spiritual element. On 6 May, bells will ring from Town Church, Vale, Forest, and St Pierre du Bois on Coronation Day, 6 May. A live broadcast of the coronation service will be played on a large screen at the KGV, followed by a military parade from Fort George to the Model Yacht Pond. A 21-gun salute will be fired at noon from Castle Cornet as part of the national salute. A Coronation Big Lunch will be held at Saint Peter Port seafront on 7 May, along with a service of Thanksgiving at the Town Church. On the evening of 7 May, the Coronation Concert will be screened live at the KGV, and several buildings including Castle Cornet and Fort Grey will be illuminated in red, white, and blue in the evening.[85] Jersey has planned several events over three days to celebrate the coronation. On 6 May, Coronation Park will host an event that includes a large-screen broadcast of the coronation, musical entertainment, and activities. Licensed establishments are encouraged to open ahead of the ceremony's broadcast, and seventh category licensed establishments may apply for special extensions to stay open until 3 am on 7 May. On 7 May, the Coronation Big Lunch will take place in Liberation Square, and a public screening of the coronation concert will be held there.[83][86] The Isle of Man government has organised three days of festivities from 6 to 8 May to celebrate the coronation of Charles III, Lord of Mann. A Coronation Event Fund was established to assist local authorities, community groups, and charities help finance celebrations. Commemorative events planned on the Isle of Mann include the Biosphere Bee Community Picnic on 7 May. The Legislative Buildings in Douglas will also be lit up on 7 May, as a part of the British 'Lighting up the Nation' initiative.[84][87] A collection of 12 Isle of Man stamps featuring photos of Charles and Camilla, portraits of the King, and the royal cypher were also released in April 2023.[88] British Overseas Territories A public holiday was declared on 8 May in Bermuda and the Cayman Islands.[74] Several events are planned in Bermuda for the coronation weekend. On 6 May, a commemorative tree planting will take place, and a Coronation Garden will be officially opened at the Botanical Gardens. The garden has been designed to reflect Charles's work in support of the environment and sustainable farming. On 7 May, a service of Thanksgiving will be held at the Cathedral of the Most Holy Trinity.[89] On 8 May, the Children's Reading Festival will take place to recognise the Camilla's commitment to literacy, particularly for young people.[90]

  • Condition: In Very Good Condition for its age
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